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his stand in a convenient place to fhoot at him as he passes. If he misses his aim, the second man follows the same course when he comes up to the third, and so on, till they either kill him, or tire him so much as to render him unable to pursue them longer, when they watch the opportunity of dispatching him while at rest. His flesh is eaten, and much relished by the natives of India and Africa.
The rhinoceros with one horn is the most common; but there is another species of this clafs of animals which has two horns, as is well known from specimens of these that are to be found in European cabinets; but the precise nature of the animal itself which produces this double horn is not yet sufficiently ascertained. Two naturalists have of late described this animal. Mr Sparman the Swedish naturalist and Mr Bruce, but their descriptions are so exceedingly dissimilar, as to leave the reader in doubt which of them fhould most be credited. The Swedish naturalist represents the two horned rhinoceros as being a very different animal from that already described. Its fkin is smooth, having none of those plaits or folds, that so peculiarly characterise the common rhinoceros; whereas, Mr Bruce represents it as having these folds, and being precisely the same with that which has been delineated by Buffon and other naturalists, unless in what respects the horn only. They both however, agree, in saying that the second horn is placed on the nose exactly behind the first, being
fhorter and blunter than it is. They also agree in admitting that the animal has a power of moving those horns, in such a way as to admit of its using the shortest horn only, for digging or tearing up objects it wishes to overturn; a circumstance that does not seem to be easily comprehended. In time the facts respecting this animal will be more fully explained.
HISTORY OF PORTUGAL.
The following LETTER is from another Portuguese
MAY 18. 1784.
I HAVE the honour of receiving your letter of the 4th inftant; and if I have not fooner written to you, it was only because I wished to think deliberately, on the letter of Mr before I communicated my ideas on that subject. I now communicate them to you.
In the first place, all the world knows, that in order to write the history of any nation, it is necefsary to be fully acquainted with its language, to be able to read with ease the authors, and original manuscripts, and memoirs that tend to illustrate the subject. The Portuguese language has experienced the same changes as almost all others; so that the writings of the time of John 1. are different from those of the days of Emmanuel;
and there is besides a great difficulty in reading ancient manuscripts; and it would not be well to trust to another for selecting the materials for an authentic history. The writer must, therefore, resolve to submit to the drudgery of reading and selecting these himself, if he hopes to compose a work that shall be fully deserving the public approbation.
In the second place, that he may obtain the necefsary manuscripts, he ought to have a friend at court with permifsion for him to search the Torre do Tombo, the convents of Alcobaça, Batatha, S. Domingos, and other places in which are to be found materials for the history of Portugal. For these reafons, I would advise Mr. undertake a voyage to Portugal, and to cultivate an acquaintance with l'Abbé Ca, who is esteemed by the Duc de Lafoens*, who could lay open to him all the archives in the nation ;-he is a learned man, and has great credit at court. But before he leaves London, he ought to purchase the Bibliotheca Portugueza de Diego Barbosa; and also at London he might buy other books concerning our hiftory, which, though singular, are not to be had at Lifbon. This book, which is a species of dictionary, will inform him where to look for manuscripts, and give him besides some idea of the authors and their works.
I have communicated your letter to Don
*This is Don John Braganza, duke of Lafoens, second uncle to her present majesty.
who is of the fame opinion with me: He says he knows Mr by his writings, and for the only answer, he desires you to tell him, that he ought to come to Lifbon, and cultivate an acquaintance with l'Abbé Ca.
I had begun to make a list of Portuguese authors, but by his advice stop fhort at present.I am, &c.
* The following is the fhort list transmitted along with the above letter just referred to.
As decadas de Joao Barros.
do Diego de Corto.
Os commentarios de Albuquerque por Anto.Barreto. de D. Joao de Castro por Jacinto Pre. de D. Nuno Alvares Poa.
de D. Infante D. Henrigue.
As Chronicas de D. Joao. 2. de D. Manoel.
de S. Domingos por F. Luis de
de Cester por F. Bornd. de Brito.
Diego Barboza Biblioteca Portugueza. Historia Genealogica de Caza Real por D. Ante.
As Ordenaçoens de Filipe 2.
De Duarte Nunes de Liceo.
Cortes dos Reis de Port.
Os Statutes da
Coimbra feitos por D. Joao 3.
Cortes d'elrey D. Manoel em Santarem. d'elrey D. Joao 3. em Almerin.
The following Excerpts of Letters are from an Englifh Gentleman, who had resided feveral Years in
YOUR learned friend Mr
has thought of an Herculean labour, and such materials as he wants, will be difficult to meet with. He appears to me to intend to take in the time from John r. to the Philips, about 150 years; no doubt the brilliant period of the Portuguese history. The life of D. Joao 2o. by Resende, is a book much to hiş purpose, but it is now very hard to be met with. Pedro Nunes's book of navigation, printed in 1573. I have got, and no doubt it is in many of our pu blic libraries. I have a 4to. edition of Osorios de rebus Emmanuelis regis Lusitanie, printed Lisbon 1571; but in our libraries there must be all his works, which were printed at Rome in four volumes folio. I have a scarce book of Duardus Nonius Leo, printed Lisbon 1585, of the kings of Portugal. I have many modern books of the Portuguese history, which are easily to be found. A book was printed last year at Lisbon, called Repertorio chronologico das leys pragmaticas alvaras, cartas, regias, decretos, feraese, ditais, regimentos, estatutos, &c. &c from 1143 to king Emmanuel, which is to your friend's purpose. History is not