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The young man, on his part, was equally captivated; and, indeed, the charms which had touched his heart in early youth, were now in full bloom, and, in his opinion, much improved by time; and gueffing by her demeanour, and the language of her eyes, that he ftill maintained a place in her affections, he liftened enamoured to her converfe, which, being in the presence of her husband, was lively and innocent; while hurried away by the impulfe of paffion, his purpose was to carry her off to a country, where they were both unknown.
The husband at length proposed to his wife to proceed on her journey, when the ftranger politely offered to accompany them a few miles. By the way, he found means to whisper his fcheme, and was happy to find his old mistress impatient as he could wish, to abandon, for his fake, all that a virtuous woman holds dear. Such was the return The made her husband for all his tendernefs and love! and fo blind was she to that mifery and shame that were foon to overtake her! Towards the foot of the mountain, in a wild woody glen, the husband having occafion to stay a lit tle behind, the guilty pair made their elopement, and were out of fight in a moment. Bereaved thus of his wife, and of his harp, the wretched husband exclaimed in an agony of grief: "Fool that I was, to burn my harp for "her fake +!"
This exclamation has long been proverbial in the Highlands, when an honest generous man is treated with monftrous ingratitude.
Intelligence refpecting Arts, &c.
A new difcovered Method of producing Yeaft. SOME years ago, the ingenious Dr. Henry of Manchefter found by experiment, that by the addition of fome fixed air to a decoction of malt, in proper circumftances, real Yeaft might be produced, that was capable of raifing
Smeirg a loifgeadh a thiompan ria.
bread, and had every other known quality of Yeast ob tained by the ufual mode of fermentation.
This process, however, on account of its requiring a particular apparatus, and materials, with which common people are in general unacquainted, has never, that we have heard of, been applied to any ufe in economy or arts. The account of it was published about three years ago in the tranfactions of the philofophical fociety of Manchefter.
Since then it has been discovered, that Yeaft may be actually produced at pleasure, from a decoction of malt, without the addition of fixed air, or any thing else whatever. This discovery was made by a plain man, named JOSEPH SENYOR, fervant to the Reverend Mr. William Mafon of Afton near Rotheram in Yorkshire, and is published in the eighth volume of the Tranfactions of the Society of Arts in London, who, after having tried the experiment according to the recipe after mentioned, and finding it to fucceed perfectly in every refpect, awarded to him a bounty of twenty pounds. As it may be of use in many circumftances to know how this may be done, the recipe for obtaining this is here tranfcribed.
Recipe to convert a Decoction of Malt into Yeaft, with out any Addition.
"Procure three earthen or wooden veffels, of different "fizes and apertures, one capable of holding two quarts, (i. e. one pint Scots) the other three or four, and the "third five or fix: boil a quarter of a peck of malt for "about eight or ten minutes in three pints (three mutch"kins) of water; and when a quart (a chopin) is pour"ed off from the grains, let it ftand in a cool place till not "quite cold, but retaining that degree of heat which the "brewers ufually find to be proper when they begin to "work their liquor; then remove the veffel into fome "warm fituation, near a fire, where the thermometer stands "between 70 and 80 degrees, (Fahrenheit) and there let "it remain till the fermentation begins, which will be "plainly perceived within thirty hours [the fociety say the "fermentation came on in three days]; add then two " quarts (one pint Scots) more of a like decoction of This seems to be too small a quantity of water, but I transcribe faithfully.
malt, when cool, as the first was; and mix the whole in "the larger fized veffel, and ftir it well in, which must be "repeated in the ufual way, as it rifes in a common vat: "then add a still greater quantity of the fame decoction, "to be worked in the largest veffel, which will produce "Yeast enough for a brewing of forty gallons (ten gallons "Scots)."
"Some of this Yeaft," say the Society, after having repeated the above experiment, "being mixed with a due proportion of flour, water, and falt, anfwered all the purposes intended, for bread; and might certainly have been equally well applied to brewing, in the common method. In fine, being pure and good Yeaft, it will answer all the intentions of that useful article."
It has been long known that the juice of the vine can be brought to ferment after this manner, without the addition of any Yeaft; but it seems never before to have been fufpected, that malt liquor could be made to undergo the like procefs. By means of this discovery, no one needs now be at a lofs for Yeaft, for carrying forward the procefs of brewing wherever they may be fituated, in particular at Sea; fo that on this, and other accounts, I conceive it must prove an useful article of information to many perfons. The theory of fermentation, as it has been hitherto ufually taught, is doubtlefs, in many refpects, erroneous. It has been generally believed, that all kinds of vinous fermentation depended upon a faccharine vegetable juice; and that of course, it was only fweet fubftances that were liable to run into it. Hence it was believed, that the process of malting was neceffary for rendering grain capable of undergoing the fermentative procefs; and that until the grain fhould thus be rendered sweet, it could not be fermented.It is now, however, well known, that meal and grain any how broke down into fmall parts, can be made to ferment, although it has never been 'malted; and it was found in this experiment, that the addition of fugar to the wort prevented the fermentation. I fhall here fubjoin a procefs for baking bread with a very fmall quantity of yeast, that ought to be more generally known than it is,
Recipe for making a very small quantity of Yeast anfwer the Purpose of baking a large quantity of flour. "TAKE four table fpoonfuls of pure water, heated to the warmth of new-drawn milk;-add to that fome flour, "and about a tea-fpoonful of good Yeaft, and stir and "mix it well, till it be of the confiftence of thick cream, or batter for making pan-cakes: cover it up, and fet "it in a place where the temperature is moderate,"that is, in a warm chamber in winter, and in one "without fire in it, or that is not expofed to the fun in "fummer: In fix or eight hours, a fermentation will com"mence,—the surface will hove up,-and at the end of "twelve or fourteen hours, it will have acquired the appearance and confiftency of fine light yeast. You may "then add to this twice as much water, as at first you employed, ftill milk warm.-Stir the whole, fo as to mix "it thoroughly ;-then add more fresh flour, and ftir it up "thoroughly as at first, till it be again of the confistence of "batter; cover it again up, and let it ftand as before; the "fermentation will immediately commence;-and in a few "hours, it will again affume the appearance of fine light "yeast. If you have now a quantity fufficient for your "purpose, it may be used instead of yeast for bread; "but if you ftill want more, you may again double the "quantity, by adding as much water as you had employed
at both the former times, and mixing it up with flour as "before, and leaving it again to ferment.-How often this "process might be thus repeated with fafety, I cannot tell; "but certain it may be repeated three times, as here defcribed, without any risk of becoming four;-and the "time required for this purpofe, will be about twenty-four or thirty hours. One tea-fpoonful of yeaft, my recipe "faid, might ferve to bake a bufhel of flour.-I never had "occafion to push the experiment fo far; but believe it might be fo.
"When you have obtained as much of this kind of yeast as would be fufficient of the best common yealt to bake "the quantity of bread at the time, you need not proceed "farther. Mix up this yeatt in your paste, as you would "do any other; and when it is well kneaded into it, form
your paste into the fhape you mean your bread to be ;"but take cave to let it lie upon the board for fome hours
"after it has been kneaded up, before it be put into the oven ;-then bake it properly, and you will have fine, "fweet, and light bread, perfectly free from any taste of "fournefs, if your flour has been good,-and equally free "of the bitterness, that is so often communicated to bread "L by yeast from beer."
The above is not a fanciful receipt prefcribed by theoretical notions, but is one, of which I can speak with certainty, having had the experience of it in my own family for more than a dozen of years. In the country, a private family is often subjected to great difficulty in getting new wheat bread, from the want of fresh yeast-This induced me to try the above, which is no invention of my own, but which I picked up fomewhere; and after many years experience of bread made of it every day, I can fpeak with certainty upon the head.
Allow me however to obferve, that in this method of baking, as well as every other mode, much depends on the judgment, attention and practice of the baker. An unfkilful perfon may make it very bad after this mode; but by attention and care, thofe of my family who took charge of that department, had acquired fuch a knowledge of the circumstances that varied the process, that I could, when I pleased to order it, have bread of any kind I required. It could be made close and weighty, though well fired, to those who defired it fo, or light and fpungy to any degree required, fo as even to leave scarcely any crumb at all, to those who liked cruft better than crumb of a roll. In fhort, by this process, the bread could be made to fuit the taste of the perfon who was to eat it, whoever it was. I must therefore add, that whoever fhall try it and not fucceed, muft afcribe it to their own want of practice, or flovenly careleffnefs, and to nothing elfe. I cannot however fpecify all the particulars in the procefs that occafioned the abovementioned peculiarities, for they fell not under my own cognisance. They fell to the charge of one who was more attentive, and more capable of judging than myself, but who now, alas! can never communicate any part of that knowledge to others.