A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror
This volume traces the course of Spanish military history, primarily during the 20th century. Chapter 1 provides the foundation for the role of the Spanish Army at home (the War of Independence [Napoleonic War], the Carlist Wars, and pronunciamientos), abroad (Morocco, 1859-60), and as an instrument for Liberal reforms in Spain. Chapter 2 covers the period following the Spanish-American War as the Army redirected its focus to the Spanish Protectorate in northern Morocco. This chapter covers the Rif Rebellion (1921-27), the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-30) and concludes with the end of the monarchy and the establishment of the 2nd Republic in 1931. Chapters 3 and 4 present the two armies of the Spanish Civil War, as well as their relationship to the warring factions of Nationalists and Republicans. Chapter 5 looks at the Spanish Army during World War II on the Eastern Front (Russia), in its overseas colonies, as well as in Spain. De-colonialism is covered in chapter 6 as Spain, following the lead of the other European powers, began to shed itself of its African empire. Chapter 8 charts Spain's integration into the Western defense community in the 1950s, its membership in NATO, and its participation in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in the Balkans and the Middle East. Chapter 9 focuses on Spain's struggle against terrorism, both the domestic Basques of ETA (Fatherland and Liberty) and the newer conflict against al-Qaeda and radical Islamic fundamentalism.
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On the afternoon of April 26 , a squadron of German bombers sent on orders of the Nationalist high command dropped high ... In an effort to preserve their public image , the Nationalists denied that they were responsible for the attack ...
did ( approximately 19,000 military personnel ) , German contributions were viewed by both the Nationalists and the ... not easily yield to German and Italian efforts to interfere with his command of Nationalist military operations .
Furthermore , the offensive had once again undermined the confidence of the Nationalists , who , only a few weeks earlier ... his own military objectives in order to prevent the Republicans from gaining ground in Nationalist territory .
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Foreword by Stanley G Payne
The Spanish Army 18981931
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