A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror
In the 19th and 20th centuries, Spain was a key player in the military conflagrations that created modern Europe. From the Napoleonic Wars, through the dress rehearsal for World War II that was the Spanish Civil War, to the grim struggle against terrorism today, the military history of modern Spain has both shaped and reflected larger forces beyond its borders.
This volume traces the course of Spanish military history, primarily during the 20th century. Chapter 1 provides the foundation for the role of the Spanish Army at home (the War of Independence [Napoleonic War], the Carlist Wars, and pronunciamientos), abroad (Morocco, 1859-60), and as an instrument for Liberal reforms in Spain. Chapter 2 covers the period following the Spanish-American War as the Army redirected its focus to the Spanish Protectorate in northern Morocco. This chapter covers the Rif Rebellion (1921-27), the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-30) and concludes with the end of the monarchy and the establishment of the 2nd Republic in 1931. Chapters 3 and 4 present the two armies of the Spanish Civil War, as well as their relationship to the warring factions of Nationalists and Republicans. Chapter 5 looks at the Spanish Army during World War II on the Eastern Front (Russia), in its overseas colonies, as well as in Spain. De-colonialism is covered in chapter 6 as Spain, following the lead of the other European powers, began to shed itself of its African empire. Chapter 8 charts Spain's integration into the Western defense community in the 1950s, its membership in NATO, and its participation in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in the Balkans and the Middle East. Chapter 9 focuses on Spain's struggle against terrorism, both the domestic Basques of ETA (Fatherland and Liberty) and the newer conflict against al-Qaeda and radical Islamic fundamentalism.
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The three Carlist Wars (1833–40, 1846–49, and 1872–76), fought between the
followers of Don Carlos and the government forces of Queen Isabel II (Cristinos),
again showed the poor fighting capability of the Spanish Army. This time, as ...
Carlist guerrillas were the opponents of the central government. While the military
... It would be in the mountainous regions of Navarre and the Basque Country that
the Carlists would have their strongest base of support. The use of irregular ...
Because they were scattered all over the peninsula, the Carlists ended up
creating three major forces: the army of the ... Through a combination of
volunteers and draftees, by the end of 1834 the Carlist armies had only about
18,000 troops all ...
Much like the Spanish guerrillas fighting the French decades earlier, the Carlists
thereby tied down an increasing number of the queen's troops. In this way, the
Carlists compensated at least in part for their relative lack of numbers, which
The same could not be said of its next war, this time another civil war against the
Carlists once again. The Carlists had already staged another uprising since the
First Carlist War, the so-called ''War of the 'Early Risers''' (''Matiners'' in Catalan ...
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Unarmed Neutrality Javier Ponce
Francos Nationalist Army George Esenwein
5 The Popular Army of the Spanish Republic 193639 Michael Alpert
6 The Spanish Military During World War II Wayne H Bowen
7 Decolonization and the Spanish Army 194076 Shannon E Fleming
From Isolation to Integration 19452006 Kenneth W Estes and Jose M Serrano
The Spanish Experience 19392006 Jose A Olmeda
About the Contributors