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have been generally used to contemplate military operations, only as they are circumfcribed within the narrow confines of European countries, that the object of this enterprize was at so vaft a distance, as that the party, in their way, were obliged to traverse no lefs than about 1200 miles, of a boundless, uncultivated, and uninhabited wafte, through which they were under a neceffity of conveying every neceffary for fubfittence, and every equipment for action. It is, however, to be obferved, that their conveyance, for much the greater part of the way, was by water.

Their object was the reduction of thofe French fettlements, which had been planted by the Canadians on the upper Miffifippi, in that fine and fertile region, as it is defcribed, which taking its name from a noted nation of Indians, is called the Illinois country. It appears, that much of the mischief which had fallen upon the fouthern and middle colonies from the incurfions of the favages, had been attributed to the activity of the governor of thofe fettlements; who, fince the commencement of the troubles, acting as an agent for government, and paying large rewards for fcalps, had befides been indefatigable in his continual endeavours of exciting the Ohio and Miffifippi Indians, to undertake expeditions against the back fettlements. This conduct was the motive to the prefent diftant expedition.

The party, after a long courfe down the Monongahela, and what might be confidered in point of extent, as a voyage, on the Ohio, arrived at length at the great falls of the latter, within about 60 miles

of its mouth, where they hid their boats, and bent their courfe by land to the northward. In this ftage of the expedition, after confuming all the provifion which they had been able to carry on their backs, they endured a hard march of two days without any fullenance. We may therefore well credit their affertion, that when they arrived in this hungry ftate, about midnight, at the town of Kafkafkias, they were unanimously determined to take it or to perish in the attempt.

This town contained about 250 houses, and was fufficiently fortified to have withstood a much stronger enemy; but as the imagined fecurity which the people derived from their remoteness, forbad all ideas of danger, it of course fuperfeded all precaution against a furprize. This was accordingly as complete as poffible. The town and fort were taken, without noife or opposition, before the people were well awake; and the inhabitants were so effectually fecured, that not fo much as a fingle perfon efcaped to alarm the neighbouring fettlements. The governor, Philip Rocheblave, who was confidered as fo inimical to the Americans, was fent to Virginia, with all the written inftructions which he had received from Quebec, Detroit, and Michilli mackinack, for fetting on and pay. ing the Indians. The inhabitants were compelled to take an oath of allegiance to the United States; and the fort became the principal citadel and head quarters of the victors.

A fmall detachment which was pushed forward from this place on horfeback, furprized and took with as little difficulty, three other French towns, which lay from

fifteen

fifteen to about feventy miles farther up the Miffifippi. In all, the inhabitants feem to have transferred their allegiance with great facility; nor were thofe difperfed in the country behind - hand with them; who, without waiting for any operation of force or neceffity, flocked in by hundreds to take the new oath.

The fituation of this fmall party, in the heart of the Indian country, at the back of fome of their most cruel and hoftile tribes, in the track of many others, and more or lefs in the way of all, was converted to peculiar advantage, by the extraordinary activity, and unwearied fpirit of their commander. He directed and timed his attacks with fuch judgment, and executed them with fach filence and dispatch, that the favages, at length, found their own mode of war effectually turned upon them. Surprized in their inmoft retreats, and moft fequeftered receffes, at thofe times and feafons, when they were fcarcely lefs indifpofed for action, than unprepared for defence, they experienced in their own huts and families, that unexpected flaughter and deftruction, which they had fo frequently carried home to others. Thus feeling, in the moft fenfible manner, thofe calamities which they were only wont to adminifter, they grew cautious and timid; and the continual danger to which their families were expofed, damped, for a while, the ardour of the warriors in undertaking expeditions. In the mean time, the Americans in the back fettlements, not only hearing of Clarke's fucceffes, but immediately feeling their benefit, began to shake off their terror, and even feemed by degrees to partake of his fpirit, and enterprize.

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An expedition, in fome degree of the fame nature, was also undertaken, from the remote and upper parts of Penfylvania in the month of October, under the conduct of a Col. Butler; the prefent being, however, as much directed, against feveral confiderable fettlements belonging to thofe people whom they called Tories (and who, from the violence of their paft hoftilities, had become particularly obnoxious), as against the Indians, with whom they feem to have been intermixed as one people. This party, which confifted of a Penfylvania regiment, covered by riflemen and rangers, took its depar ture from Schoharie; and having gained the head of the Delaware, marched down that river for two days; from whence, turning off to the right, they ftruck across the mountains to the Sufquehanna, which was the fcene of action.

Without entering into a detail of particulars, it will be fufficient to obferve, that they totally burnt and deftroyed, both the Indian caftles or villages in that quarter, and the other fettlements. But that, notwithstanding the utmost addrefs and precaution were practifed for the purpose of a complete furprize, the inhabitants, both Tories and Indians, had the fortune to efcape; a deliverance of no small moment in their fituation; as the vengeance for Wyoming, where they bore a diftinguished part, would undoubtedly have fallen heavy upon them. The deftruction was extended for feveral miles. on both fides of the Sufquehanna; in the courfe of which, the fruits of a plentiful harveft, together with the only faw-mill and grift-mill in that whole country, fhared an equal fate with the houses and every

other

other article useful or neceffary to

man.

The difficulties, diftreffes, and dangers, which the party encountered in this expedition, were peculiar to that part of the world; and required no fmall fhare of that patient fortitude, and hardinefs of body and mind, which can fcarcely be acquired without long habitude, under certain marked circumftances of fituation, by any confiderable number of men. Notwithstanding the occafional affiftance which they derived from their pack - horfes, they were under a neceffity of carrying fix days provifions on their backs; and thus loaded, continually to wade through rivers and creeks of fuch a depth and magnitude, that they would fcarcely appear paffable, without any incumbrance, to men unused to fuch fervice. In these circumstances, after the toil of a hard march, and in fome fituations not venturing to make fires for fear of difcovery, they were obliged to endure, without cover, the chilling nights and heavy rains peculiar to that climate and feafon; whilft their arms were

rendered useless, at thofe times when they were most liable to the fudden attack of an enraged and cruel enemy, whofe principal effort lay in that fort of furprize. These were, however, only fmall matters, when compared with the danger which awaited their return, and which they hardly escaped. This was the fudden rifing of the great rivers in their way, occafioned by the continual rains, whilft they were fill in the enemies country, (who were very strong in that quarter) their provifions nearly expended, and every moment affording fresh room for apprehenfion, that their return would become totally impracticable. A ftrenuous and bold exertion, to which fortune was, at leaft, negatively favourable, prevented the fatal confequences of that event.

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VOL. XXII.

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Review of conciliatory measures pursued by the commiffioners for restoring peace to America. Attempt to open and smooth the way to a negociation by private communications and correspondence, fails in the effect, and is bigbly refented by the Congrefs. Refolutions by that body against holding any communication or intercourse with one of the commiffioners. Gentleman in queftion, declines acting any longer in the commiffion, and publishes a declaration in anfwer to the Congrefs. Declaration from the remaining commiffioners in anfwer to that body. Final manifefto and proclamation by the commiffioners. Cautionary measures recommended by the Congress to the people; followed by a counter manifefto, threatening retaliation. Singular letter from the Marquis de la Fayette, to the Earl of Carlisle. American expedition for the reduction of the British fettlements in the country of the Natches, on the borders of the Miffifippi. Expedition from NewYork, under the conduct of Commodore Parker and Colonel Campbell, for the reduction of the province of Georgia. Landing made good, and the rebels defeated. Town of Savannah taken, and the province in general reduced. Major-General Prevoft arrives from the fouthward; takes the town and fort of Sunbury, and affumes the principal command.

return

T affords no fmall degree of I pleafing relaxation, from all the rage of war, and all the horrid ferocity of favages, and once more to tread in the pleafing We have inpaths of civil life. deed beheld the firft in its moft fhocking and degraded form. Stripped of all that " pomp, pride, "and circumftance," which ferve fo ftrongly to fascinate the imagination, and divested of that glare of glory, which throws a fhade over its deformities, the ghaftly carcass has not only been exposed in all its nakedness, but polluted and diftained by the bloody hands of barbarians. From fo horrid a fcene we naturally turn with pleasure, to trace the tranquil mazes of negociation, and to review the acts and conduct of men in the most refined ftate of fociety.

We briefly stated in our last volume, the infuperable difficulties

which the Congrefs had thrown in the way of that conciliatory fyftem, with which the Commiffioners had been charged from England to America; and that an acknowledgment of independency, or the total withdrawing of the military force, were the peremptory and only conditions held out by the former, upon which they would admit the opening of any negociation. One of the gentlemen who was appointed in the commiffion, having ferved in the navy, on the American coast, and afterwards been governor of a province there, had formed confiderable connexions, and an extenfive acquaintance in that country; and he now hoped that these circumftances might be of effential fervice, by using them as means to facilitate the attainment of the great object in view. This feemed the more feafible, as his parliamentary conduct fince that time,

had.

had been in fuch direct oppofition to all those measures, which were deemed hoftile or oppreffive with regard to the Colonies, that it could fcarcely fail of greatly increafing, instead of diminishing, any influence which he might then have acquired. Under thefe circumftances he deemed it reasonable to conclude, that the direct applications of friendship, under the, covert and freedom of a private correfpondence, together with the fanction of perfonal esteem and opinion, might operate more happily in fmoothing or removing those difficulties which ftood in the way of an accommodation, than the ftiff, tedious, and formal proceedings of public negociation. He was befides well aware, as indeed it was publicly avowed, that the Commiffioners laboured under the capital impediment, of the Americans, with whom they were to treat, placing no manner of confidence in the faith or equity of the authority under which they acted; but that on the contrary, their diftruft of adminiftration had grown fo long, and was become fo rivetted and confirmed, that they fufpected every propofal that was made, as held out only to circumvent; and as the mere offspring of duplicity and treachery. To remove this ill impreffion, would have been evidently an object of the utmost importance towards the opening of a negociation, and the hope of entering into a treaty. But if the accomplishment of this appeared to be an impracticability, it did not feem a very unreasonable expectation, that the character which this gentleman had acquired in his political capacity, of being an avowed friend to the rights and

conftitutional liberties of America' further ftrengthened and confirmed by the known principles of the oppofition in general, with whom he had fo long acted in parliament, might produce that neceffary degree of confidence in a private, which unhappily could not be obtained in a public negociation.

Under fome of these, and perhaps other ideas, he endeavoured to commence or renew a private correfpondence with feveral members of the Congrefs, and other perfons of confideration. Thus in fact, endeavouring to establish a double fyftem of negociation; the one, oftenfible, with the Congress at large; the other, unfeen and private, with individuals whofe influence might not only facilitate, but even in fome degree direct, the proceedings of the former. Some of thefe letters, which have been published, feem rather of an unufual caft, confidering the peculiar circumstances and fituation of the writer. While, as a common friend to both countries, he pathetically lamented their mutual calamities, he feemed no way fparing in his cenfure of the conduct and measures on the fide of government which led to the prefent troubles; nor did he any more fupport the juftice of the original claims fet up by the mother country, than he did the prudence or policy of endeavouring to enforce them. Upon the whole, he used a freedom with the authority under which he acted, not customary with thofe entrusted with delegated power, and afforded fuch a degree of approbation to the conduct of the Americans in the past resistance which they had made to it, as is feldom granted by negociators to

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