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has the right, in case of a breach of contract and in case his discharge is not due to his own fault, to an indemnity proportionate to years of service. Such indemnity is due also in case of the death of a labourer.

Article 18. The passing of any undertaking which requires continuous work into the hands of another owner does not end the labour contract and the personnel preserve their rights under the new owner. Similarly the illness of a worker not exceeding a determined length does not terminate a labour contract. A call to arms or service in the national militia is not a cause of discharge.

Article 19. Infractions of discipline and acts which disturb the normal functioning of a company, committed by workers, are punished according to gravity, by a fine, suspension of work, or immediate discharge without indemnity. Cases in which these penalties are applicable will be specified.

Article 20. New employees will be subject to a period of trial during which the right of ending the contract will be reciprocal, with payment only for the time of actual work.

Article 21. The collective labour contract extends its benefices and its discipline to home workers also. Special rules will be issued by the State to assure cleanliness and hygienic conditions of home work.

Article 22. Only the State can investigate and control the phenomenon of employment and unemployment of workers, which is a complex index to the conditions of production and labour.

Article 23. Employment offices organised on the basis of equality are placed under the control of the corporative organs. Employers must seek help among the workers registered in those offices and they have the option of choosing workers who are members of the party or of the Fascist Syndicates, depending on the length of time they have been registered.

Article 24. Professional associations of workers are obliged to carry out selective action among the workers, intended constantly to increase their technical capacity and moral value.

Article 25. The corporative organs must see that the laws against accidents and the policing of labour are observed by individuals belonging to the affiliated associations.

Article 26. Prevention of accidents is another manifestation of the principle of collaboration toward which employer and employee must proportionately contribute. The State, aided by corporative organs and professional associations, will endeavour to co-ordinate and unify, as far as possible, the system and the agencies of accident prevention.

Article 27. The Fascist State proposes to accomplish, first, the improvement of accident insurance; second, the betterment and extension of maternity insurance; third, the establishment of insurance against occupational illnesses and tuberculosis and the elaboration of a system of general insurance against all illness; fourth, the improvement of insurance against involuntary unemployment, and fifth, the adoption of special forms of endowment insurance for young workers.

Article 28. It is the task of associations of workers to protect the rights of their members administratively and juridically regarding accidents and social insurance. In collective contracts of labour, as far as technically

possible, mutual funds for the sick will be established with contributions by employers, employees, and Government representatives, these funds to be administered by representatives of each under the control of the corporative organs.

Article 29. Assistance to individuals represented, whether or not they are members, is the right and duty of the professional associations. These must carry out directly through their own organs their functions of assistance. They cannot delegate them to other organisations or institutions except for matters of a general nature, over and above the specific interests of each category of producers.

Article 30. Education and instruction, especially professional instruction of their representatives, members or not members, is one of the principal duties of the professional associations. They must support the action of the national organisations with respect to the Dopolavoro movement [a nation-wide State organisation to provide recreation, education, and general beneficent assistance to the workers of both sexes after working hours] and other educational initiatives.

OBITUARY

OF

EMINENT PERSONS DECEASED IN 1927.

JANUARY.

1. Stephen Meredyth Edwardes, C.V.O., C.S.I., aged 54, orientalist, was the son of the Rev. Stephen Edwardes, a Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. Educated at Eton and Oxford, he passed the I.C.S. examination in 1894, and was allotted to Western India. In course of time he became a recognised authority on all matters connected with the Bombay Presidency. In 1910 he was appointed Commissioner of the Police for the city, and it thus fell to him to superintend the arrangement for good order at the landing of the King and Queen at Bombay for the Delhi Coronation Durbar. For this he was made C.V.O., and was created C.S.I. in 1915. In 1916 he was selected for the Municipal Commissionership of Bombay, a post he had to relinquish in 1918 on account of ill-health. He was then elected secretary of the Indo-British Association, a body set up to oppose the Montague-Chelmsford report. In 1921 he represented India at the Geneva Conference on Traffic in Women and Children. His real field of interest, however, was research rather than political controversy. In 1923 he became joint-editor of the Indian Antiquary, and in 1926 he was made secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society. Amongst much other literary work he revised Grant Duff's "History of the Mahrattas " for the Clarendon Press, and also the late Mr. Vincent Smith's "Early History of India." In 1925 he published an exceptionally interesting book on Crime in India.' He married (1895) Celia, daughter of Mr. Arthur

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4. Ambrose McEvoy, A.R.A., aged 48, was the son of Captain C. A. McEvoy, a friend of Whistler. He worked at the Slade School from the age of 15, having as companions Sir William Orpen and Augustus John. His two pictures, 'Dieppe " (1909) and "The Earring " (1911) showed him to be a painter of real promise, and by 1915 his reputation was made secure by his two portraits, "Mrs. Charles McEvoy" and "The Artist's Mother." In 1924 he was made an A.R.A., and in the following year an Associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours. Amongst some of his best-known pictures are the portraits of Lieutenant R. D. Sandford, R.N., V.C., and Claude Johnson, Esq., "Mrs. Rosen," "Blue and Gold," and " La Reprise.' McEvoy has been called a Shelley among painters. He married Mary, daughter of Colonel Spencer Edwards, who survived him with a son and daughter.

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7. Sir Francis Fox, aged 82, who was well known as a specialist on the preservation of cathedrals, began his distinguished career as an engineer in the firm of his father, Sir Charles Fox & Sons, and continued it as a member of the firm of his elder brother, Sir Douglas Fox & Partners. He was connected with the building of the Mersey Tunnel (1880-86), with the construction of a rack railway to the top of Snowdon, as engineer to the Great Central Railway with

the erection of a swing bridge over the Dee below Chester, and with the RugbyMarylebone railway extension, 1894-99. He was also concerned with railway construction abroad, being responsible for the bridge over the Zambesi at the Victoria Falls, and he was one of the experts nominated by the British Government on an international commission in connexion with the Simplon Tunnel. As a specialist in the preservation of cathedrals he made extensive use of the Greathead Grouting Machine by which liquid cement can be forced by compressed air into the crevices of masonry. This process was applied notably at the restoration of Winchester Cathedral (1905-12), and also at Canterbury and Lincoln. In 1912 Sir Francis reported on the condition of St. Paul's, and proved by personal investigation in diving costume the existence of quicksand near the cathedral. In 1924 he published an interesting volume of reminiscences: "Sixty-three Years of Engineering: Scientific and Social Work." Sir Francis received his knighthood in 1912. He was twice married: in 1869, to Selina, daughter of Mr. Francis Wright, who died in 1900; and in 1901 to Agnes, daughter of Mr. H. K. Horne. He left a son and three daughters by his first wife.

9. Houston Stewart Chamberlain, born in 1855, the bitterest of anti-British renegades, was descended from a family distinguished for its services to the Crown. His education, partly abroad and partly at an English public school, was much interrupted by ill-health, and, after studying Natural Science at Geneva for a short time, he went to Dresden and fell under the spell of Wagner's music. After various literary efforts his "Life of Wagner" appeared, and in 1899 this was followed by "The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century," in which everything was turned to the glorification of Germany and the Germans. At the outbreak of war he espoused the cause of Germany with all the fervour of a convert, and in 1916 he was formally naturalised as a German. Chamberlain was twice married: first to Anna Horst, and in 1908 to Eva, only daughter of Richard Wagner.

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12. Sir John Scott Keltie, aged 86, was the pioneer in this country of the scientific study of geography. He was educated at the Universities of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, and also at the Theological Hall of the United Presbyterian Church in Edinburgh, but he did not enter on a clerical career. In 1871 he joined Macmillan's staff in London, becoming sub-editor of Nature in 1873 and editor of "The Statesman's Year-Book" in 1880, a post he held until his death. Geographical subjects had early attracted his attention; in 1875 he began to contribute geographical articles to The Times, and in 1893 he published the Partition of Africa." In 1884 he was appointed Inspector of Geographical Education by the Royal Geographical Society. His report in this capacity led to a revolution in the teaching of geography both at our universities and in our schools. In 1885 he became Librarian to the Royal Geographical Society, and from 1892 to 1915 was its Secretary. In 1893 he began the editorship of the Geographical Journal, and continued as editor till 1917. On his retirement he was elected to the Council of the Society, and in 1921 became one of its VicePresidents. He took the keenest interest in all expeditions for exploration, and particularly in the Mt. Everest expedition. Sir John was the recipient of many foreign medals and honours, and his knighthood was bestowed on him in 1918. In 1865 he married a daughter of Captain John Scott, by whom he had one daughter.

13. William Barclay Squire, aged 71, eminent as an authority on music, studied privately at Frankfurt, and in 1878 graduated from Pembroke College, Cambridge. As an undergraduate he came under the influence of the musical developments at Cambridge of C. V. Stanford, and contributed to Sir George Grove's "Dictionary of Music and Musicians." During 1883-85 he practised in London as a solicitor, and in 1885 he entered the British Museum as Assistant Librarian. Here he specialised in printed music, and in 1892 produced his famous "Catalogue of Old Printed Music in the British Museum." From 1912

to 1920 he was Deputy-Keeper of the Department of Printed Books. On his retirement he maintained his appointment as hon. curator of the Royal Music Library, and had the charge of the valuable Royal Music Collection which the King had transferred for safe-keeping to a special room designed by Mr. Barclay Squire. The results of his research work were embodied in the "Encyclopædia Britannica," the " Dictionary of National Biography," the " Musical Antiquary," and other periodicals. In addition to his other activities he issued a catalogue for the Royal College of Music and, with Mr. Fuller Maitland, edited the 'Fitzwilliam Virginal Book." Squire was elected an honorary fellow of Pembroke College, and created M.V.O. in 1926. He was also a Knight of Grace of the Order of St. John.

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14. Sir Isambard Owen, aged 76, an educationist, was the son of William George Owen, chief engineer to the G.W.R. He was educated at Rossall and Downing College, Cambridge, and entered St. George's Hospital, London, in 1872. He took his final M.B. at Cambridge in 1876 and his M.D. in 1882. While holding various medical appointments in London and carrying on a successful consulting practice between 1883 and 1904, he interested himself in the administrative side of education, and was largely instrumental in founding the University of Wales, the Charter for which was granted in 1893. On Lord Aberdare's death in 1894 he became acting Head of the University, and in 1896 he installed the Prince of Wales as Chancellor at Aberystwyth. In 1904 a new era of his life began with his appointment as Principal of Armstrong College. His strong personal influence at Newcastle impressed upon the city and county the importance of a university college, and in 1908 he secured the passing of the University of Durham Act, which entirely reconstituted the University and strengthened the Faculty of Arts at Newcastle. In 1909 he was appointed Vice-Chancellor of Bristol University, holding this post during a period of many anxieties and vicissitudes for the new university.

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15. David Janowski, born 1868, was amongst the foremost chess players in the world. He gained master" rank at the game when he was still in his twenties. From 1894 to 1916 he took part in all the principal international tournaments. His death from tubercular disease took place at Hyères, whither he had gone to compete in a tournament.

16. Professor Eugen Hultzsch, aged 69, an Orientalist, was epigraphist to the Government of India from 1886 to 1903. He had been a pupil of Aufrecht, the famous Sanskrit scholar, and from 1882 to 1886 was assistant professor of Sanskrit at Vienna. During his years of service under the Government of India he edited the "Epigraphia Indica." His chief work, however, was an edition of the "Edicts of Asoka,” which is accepted as the standard work on the subject. In 1903 he retired from the Indian service and accepted the Chair of Sanskrit at Halle.

17. Lord Bearsted (Marcus Samuel, First Viscount), aged 73, was the founder and chairman of the Shell Transport and Trading Company, Ltd. As Marcus Samuel he formed early business connexions with Japan, and started as a small shipper of oil from Russia to the Far East. Requiring capital for development, he applied to the Rothschilds, and in 1897, with the co-operation of Messrs. Lane & Macandrew, a combination of various concerns was formed under the style of the Shell Transport and Trading Company, Ltd. In 1907 an amalgamation between this concern and its competitor in Java and Borneo, the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company, took place. In 1891 Marcus Samuel was elected alderman for the City; in 1894 Sheriff, and in 1902-3 he was Lord Mayor. In 1921 he was created a baron, and in 1925 a viscount. Throughout his life he was interested in the affairs not only of the City of London, but also of the AngloJewish community. In 1881 he married Fanny Elizabeth Benjamin, who died only a few hours before her husband. They were survived by one son and two daughters.

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