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27. All goods or merchandise of the produce or manufacture of the British dominions, which may be brought to the ports of Brazil to be landed or re-exported, shall pay the duties which are at present established. In all cases in which bounties or drawbacks are granted on merchandise exported from any of the ports of the high contracting parties, the bounties and drawbacks shall in all respects be equal, whether the re-exportation be effected in Brazilian or British ships.

28. His Imperial Majesty stipulates in his own name, and in the name of his successors, that the trade of British subjects within his dominions shall never be restricted nor affected by the operation of any monopoly or exclusive privilege of sale or purchase whatever, nor by favours conceded to any commercial company; but, on the contrary, that the subjects of his Britannic Majesty shall have free and unrestrained permission to buy and sell from and to all persons whatever, and in whatever form and manner they may please, without being obliged to give preference to any commercial companies, or individuals who possess, or may possess, exclusive privileges.

And his Britannic Majesty sti

pulates on his part faithfully to observe the same principle.

Articles which are or may be made property of the crown as national revenue, are not comprehended under this rule, inasmuch as they are not allowed to enter into general commerce.

29. His Imperial Majesty is pleased to grant to the subjects of his Britannic Majesty the privilege of being assignees of the Brazilian customs under the same conditions and securities as Brazilian subjects. On the other part it is agreed and stipulated that Brazilian subjects shall enjoy in the British customhouses the same favour, in as far as is allowed by the law, and permitted to the subjects of his Britannic Majesty.

30. The high contracting parties agree that the stipulations contained in the present treaty shall be perpetual, with the exception of articles 14, 15, 22, 23, 26, and 28, which shall remain in force for the period of ten years, reckoning from the ratification of the same treaty.

31. Stipulates that the ratifications shall be exchanged in London within the space of 14 months, or sooner if possible.

Done in the city of Rio de Janeiro, October 18, 1825.

TREATY of AMITY, COMMERCE and NAVIGATION, between his MAJESTY and the STATE of COLOMBIA, together with an Additional Article thereunto annexed, signed at BOGOTA, April 18, 1825.

In the name of the Most Holy Trinity.

Extensive commercial intercourse having been established for a series of years between the dominions of his Britannic majesty, and the several provinces or countries of

America, which (now united) constitute the State of Colombia, it seems good for the security as well as encouragement of such commercial intercourse, and for the maintenance of good understanding between his said Britannic majesty

and the said State, that the relations now subsisting between them should be regularly acknowledged and confirmed by the signature of a Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation. For this purpose they have named their respective plenipotentiaries, that is to say His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, John Potter Hamilton, esq. and Patrick Campbell, esq.; and the Vice-president charged with the executive power of the State of Colombia, Pedro Gual, Secretary of state in the department for Foreign Affairs, and general Pedro Briceno Mendezwho, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles:

Art. 1.-There shall be perpetual, firm, and sincere amity between the dominions and subjects of his majesty the king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs, and successors, and the State and people of Colombia.

Art. 2.-There shall be, between all the territories of his Britannic majesty in Europe, and the territories of Colombia, a reciprocal freedom of commerce. The subjects and citizens of the two countries, respectively, shall have liberty freely and securely, to come with their ships and cargoes, to all such places, ports, and rivers, in the territories aforesaid, to which other foreigners, are or may be permitted to come, to enter into the same, and to remain and reside in any part of the said territories, respectively; also to hire and occupy houses and warehouses for the purposes of their commerce; and, generally, the merchants and VOL. LXVII.

traders of each nation, respectively, shall enjoy the most complete protection and security for their commerce; subject always to the laws and statutes of the two countries respectively.

Art. 3. His majesty the king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland engages further, that the citizens of Colombia shall have the like liberty of commerce and navigation stipulated for in the preceding article, in all his dominions situated out of Europe, to the full extent in which the same is permitted at present, or shall be permitted hereafter, to any other nation.

Art. 4. No higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of his Britannic majesty, of any articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture of Colombia-and no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of Colombia, of any articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture of his Britannic majesty's dominions, than are or shall be payable on the like articles being the growth, produce, or manufacture of any other foreign country; nor shall any other or higher duties or charges be imposed in the territories or dominions of either of the contracting parties, on the exportation of any articles to the territories or dominions of the other, than such as are or may be payable on the exportation of the like articles to any other foreign country; nor shall any prohibition be imposed upon the exportation, or importation of any articles, the growth, produce or manufacture of his Britannic majesty's dominions, or of the said territories of Colombia, to or from the said dominions of his Britannic F*

majesty, or to or from the said territories of Colombia, which shall not equally extend to all

other nations.

Art. 5.-No higher or other duties or charges on account of tonnage, light, or harbour, dues, pilotage, salvage in case of damage or shipwreck, or any other local charges, shall be imposed, in any of the ports of Colombia, on British vessels, than those payable in the same ports by Colombian vessels ; nor in the ports of his Britannic majesty's territories, on Colombian vessels, than shall be payable in the same ports on British vessels.

Art. 6. The same duties shall be paid on the importation into the territories of Colombia of any article of the growth, produce, or manufacture of his Britannic majesty's dominions, whether such importation shall be in Colombian or in British vessels; and the same duties shall be paid on the importation into the dominions of his Britannic majesty, of any article of the growth, produce, or manufacture of Colombia, whether such importation shall be in British or Colombian vessels. The same duties shall be paid, and the same drawbacks and bounties allowed, on the exportation to Colombia of any articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture of his Britannic majesty's dominions, whether such exportation shall be in Colombian or in British vessels ; and the same duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation of any articles the growth produce or manufacture of Colombia to his Britannic majesty's dominions, whether such exportation shall be in British or Colombian vessels.

Art. 7.-In order to avoid any misunderstanding with respect to

the regulations which may respectively constitute a British or a Colombian vessel, it is hereby agreed, that all vessels built in the dominions of his Britannic majesty, and owned by British subjects, or by any of them, and whereof the master and threefourths of the mariners, at least, are British subjects, excepting where the laws provide for any extreme cases, shall be considered as British vessels; and that all vessels built in the territories of Colombia, and owned by the citi zens thereof, or any of them, and whereof the master and three fourths of the mariners, at least are Colombian citizens, excepting where the laws provide for any extreme cases, shall be considered as Colombian vessels.

Art. 8.-All merchants, commanders of ships, and others, the subjects of his Britannic majesty, or citizens of the State of Colombia, shall have full liberty, in all the territories of both powers, respectively, to manage their own affairs themselves, or to commit them to the management of whomsoever they please, as broker, factor, agent, or interpreter; nor shall they be obliged to employ any other persons for those purposes, nor to pay them any salary or remuneration, unless they shall choose to employ them; and absolute freedom shall be allowed, in all cases to the buyer and seller, to bargain and fix the price of any goods, wares, or merchandise, imported into, or exported from, the territories of either of the contracting parties, as they shall see good.

Art. 9.-In whatever relates to the lading and unlading of ships, the safety of merchandise, goods, and effects, the succession to per

sonal estates, and the disposal of personal property of every sort and denomination, by sale, donation, exchange, or testament, or in any other manner whatsoever, as also the administration of justice, the subjects and citizens of the two contracting parties shall enjoy, in their respective dominions and territories, the same privileges, liberties, and rights, as the most favoured nation, and shall not be charged, in any of these respects, with any higher imposts or duties than those which are paid, or may be paid, by the native subjects or citizens of the power in whose dominions or territories they may be resident.

They shall be exempted from all compulsory military service whatsoever, whether by sea or land, and from all forced loans, or military exactions and requisitions; neither shall they be compelled to pay any ordinary taxes, under any pretext whatsoever, greater than those that are paid by the subjects or citizens of one or other power.

Art. 10.-It shall be free for each of the two contracting parties to appoint consuls for the protection of trade, to reside in the dominions and territories of the other party; but before any consul shall act as such, he shall, in the usual form, be approved and admitted by the government to which he is sent; and either of the contracting parties may except from the residence of consuls, such particular places as either of them may judge fit to be so excepted.

Art. 11. For the better security of commerce between the subjects of his Britannic majesty and the citizens of Colombia, it is agreed, that if at any time any interruption of friendly commercial intercourse, or any rupture should unfortu

nately take place between the two contracting parties, the subjects or citizens of either of the contracting parties, residing in the dominions of the other, shall have the privilege of remaining and continuing their trade therein, without any manner of interruption, so long as they behave peaceably, and commit no offence against the laws; and their effects and property, whether intrusted to individuals or to the state, shall not be liable to seizure or sequestration, or to any other demands than those which may be made upon the like effects or property belonging to the native inhabitants of the state in which such subjects or citizens may reside.

Art. 12. The subjects of his Britannic majesty residing in the territories of the state of Colombia shall enjoy the most perfect and entire security of conscience, without being annoyed, prevented, or disturbed on account of their religious belief. Neither shall they be annoyed, molested, or disturbed in the proper exercise of their religion, provided that this take place in private houses, and with the decorum due to divine worship, with due respect to the laws, usages, and customs of the country. Liberty shall also be granted to bury the subjects of his Britannic majesty, who may die in the said territories of Colombia, in convenient and adequate places, to be appointed and established by themselves for that purpose, with the knowledge of the local authorities. Nor shall the funerals or sepulchres of the dead be disturbed in any wise, nor upon any account. In the like manner, the citizens of Colombia shall enjoy within all the dominions of his Britannic majesty, a perfect and unrestrained

liberty of conscience, and of exercising their religion publicly or privately, within their own dwelling-houses, or in the chapels and places of worship appointed for that purpose, agreeably to the system of toleration established in the dominions of his said majesty.

Art. 13.-The government of Colombia engages to co-operate with his Britannic majesty, for the total abolition of the Slave Trade, and to prohibit all persons inhabiting within the territories of Colombia, in the most effectual manner, from taking any share in such trade.

Art. 14. And forasmuch as it would be convenient and useful, for the purpose of facilitating the mutual good understanding between the two contracting parties,

and for avoiding all difficulties henceforward, that other articles should be proposed and added to the present treaty, which articles, both from a want of due time for their consideration, as well as from the pressure of circumstances, cannot at present be drawn up with the required perfection, it has been, and is agreed, on the part of both powers, that they will, with the least possible delay, come forward to treat and agree upon such articles as may be wanting to this treaty, and deemed mutually advantageous; and such articles, when they are agreed upon and duly ratified, shall form part of the present treaty of alliance, commerce, and navigation.

The 15th article relates to the ratification of the treaty.

TREATY of FRIENDSHIP, NAVIGATION, and COMMERCE, between GREAT BRITAIN and the UNITED PROVINCES of RIO DE LA PLATA.

An extensive commerce having existed for many years between the dominions of his Britannic majesty and the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, it seems advisable, for the safety and promotion of the said commerce, and the consolidation of good understanding between his majesty and the said provinces, that these existing relations should be formally recognized and confirmed by a treaty of friendship and navigation. With this view, they have named for their respective plenipotentiaries, viz. his majesty the King of Great Britain, Mr. Woodbine Parish, his majesty's consul-general at Buenos-Ayres; and the United Provinces, Don M. Jose Garcia, minister for Foreign Affairs, &c. who having exchanged their full powers, have agreed on the following articles :-

Art. 1.-Stipulates perpetual friendship between the dominions and subjects of the two parties.

2. Reciprocal freedom of trade, on the same footing as any other foreign subjects.

3. His Britannic majesty agrees that in all his dominions in Europe, and other parts of the world, the inhabitants of the United Provinces shall enjoy the freedom of trade stipulated in the preceding articles, to the whole extent that it is now permitted, or may be permitted in future, to any other nation.

4. No article of the produce or manufacture of either party shall be subjected, in the dominions of the other, to higher duties than similar articles from other foreign countries; nor shall any prohibition to export or import any articles of produce or manufacture, from or

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