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The undersigned, the minister of state and cabinet of his majesty the king of Hanover, and his Britannic majesty's principal secretary of state for Foreign Affairs, hereby declare, in the name of their respective governments

That the Hanoverian government having placed British ships, and all articles imported in such ships, in respect of all duties, whether upon the goods or upon the ships, and in respect to charges and privileges of pilotage, upon the same footing with Hanoverian ships, and the like goods, if imported in such ships; and the said Hanoverian government binding itself to observe those conditions, and any other stipulations in favour of the shipping and commerce of Great

Britain, which are contained in a convention between his Britannic majesty and the king of Prussia, concluded and signed at London, on the 2nd of April, 1824

His Britannic majesty engages to extend to the subjects and shipping of the kingdom of Hanover, all the benefits secured by the said convention to the shipping and commerce of Prussia, upon the principle of reciprocity which forms the basis of the said convention.

In witness whereof, they have signed the present declaration, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at London, the 12th day of June, 1824.



His majesty the king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain on the one part, and the senates of the free and Hanseatic cities of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh (each of these states treating in particular for itself), on the other part, equally animated with the desire of procuring all possible facilities and encouragement for those of their subjects and citizens connected with commerce, and persuaded that nothing can contribute more advantageously to the attainment of this end than the reciprocal suppression of all difference in the duties payable by the vessels and cargoes of the contracting states in each other's ports, have appointed plenipotentiaries, to conclude a convention to that end.

[The treaty goes on to state, that the right hon. George Canning, and the right hon. Wm. Huskisson, were appointed plenipotentiaries on the part of Great Britain, and James Colquhoun, the agent and consul-general in England for the Hanse Towns, acted as their plenipotentiary.]

These gentlemen having exchanged their full powers, &c. agreed upon the following articles:

1. Reckoning from this day, the vessels of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, which shall arrive in the ports of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, or which shall sail from them, as well as the English vessels arriving in the ports of the free cities of Lubec,

Bremen, and Hamburgh, or sailing therefrom, shall not be sub jected to any other duty, or any other impost, more heavy than those which are paid by national vessels arriving or sailing from those ports.

2. All merchandise, whether the produce of the territory of the free cities, or that of any other country, which may be imported from one of the ports of the said free states in English vessels into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, may be introduced in the same manner on board of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh vessels, and all merchandise the produce of the states of his Britannic majesty, or of any other country, which may be exported from the ports of the United Kingdom in English vessels, may be in like manner exported on board of those of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh; in short, all merchandise which may be imported on board of national vessels into the ports of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh or which may be exported from them, shall enjoy the same advantage when on board of English vessels.

chandise which may be imported into or exported from their ports in English vessels.

4. There shall not be granted, directly or indirectly, either by one of the contracting parties, or by corporations, societies, or agents, trading in its name or under its authority, any preference to the purchase of the produce of the manufacture, or otherwise, of their respective states, which are introduced into the other through the nationality of the vessels in which the importation takes place, the intention of the high contracting parties being that there should be absolutely no difference in this respect.

5. Considering the small extent of the territories of the republics of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, and the narrow relations of commerce and navigation which exist among them, it is provided by the present convention, that every vessel which has been built in one of the ports of these states, or which is the exclusive property of one or more of their burgesses, and has for master a burgess of one or the other; in short, whose crew is composed of three-fourths of subjects or burgesses of the said republics, or of states forming a part of this Germanic confederation, according to the table and the description contained in articles 53 and 56 of the general act of the Congress of Vienna, in 1815; that every vessel so built, manned, commanded, and being the pro

3. All merchandise which may be imported directly from the ports of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, or one of them, into those of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, shall be introduced for the same duties, whether on board of English vessels or those of the said free states; all merchandise which is permitted to be ex-perty above described, shall be conported from the United Kingdom, shall enjoy the same bounties, drawbacks, and advantages, whether exported in English or Hanseatic vessels. The sane reciprocities shall take place in the ports of the said free states, for all mer

sidered in what concerns all the objects of the present convention, as a vessel belonging to Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh.

6. Every vessel, with her cargo, belonging to one of the three Hanseatic republics, and which

shall arrive from one of their ports in the United Kingdom, shall be considered, with relation to all the objects of this convention, as coming from the country to which she belongs; and every vessel trading directly, or in succession with the ports of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, shall be, as well as the cargo, treated, for the objects above-mentioned, upon the same footing as a Hanseatic vessel making the same voyage.

7. It is besides agreed between the two parties, that in each of their states there shall not be raised upon any individual property of their subjects and burgesses, when it shall be transported out of the territory or possessions of these states, either in the way of purchase or otherwise, any other duties or taxes heavier than those to which in each of those States the same articles of property are liable when transported by their own subjects or burgesses.

8. The high contracting powers reserve to themselves the right, in order to facilitate and extend the commercial relations of their subjects and possessions, burgesses, and territories, beyond what is stipulated by this convention, of affixing additional articles, founded upon reciprocal or equivalent advantages as the nature of the case may be. Should the high contracting powers agree on one or more articles to annul these dis

positions, it is provided that the article or articles which may thus be concluded in future, shall be considered as forming part of the present convention.

9. The present convention is concluded for the space of 10 years, reckoning from this day, and for a space of 12 months more, after the king of Great Britain and Ireland on the one part, or the Governments of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, or one of them, on the other, shall have notified their intention of putting an end to it. Each of the high contracting parties reserves to himself the right of making to the other that notification at the end of the said term of ten years. It is agreed between them, that this convention and all its stipulations, in case one of the parties shall make to the other a declaration of this kind, shall cease entirely as regards the state which shall have made it, and that which shall have received this declaration; it is nevertheless understood and agreed, that if one or more of the said republics shall make or receive the above declaration, this convention shall not remain the less in force and vigour against the other Hanseatic republics which shall have neither made nor received such a declaration.

The treaty is dated the 20th of September, 1825, and signed G. CANNING. W. HUSKISSON.



In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

The separation of the empire of

Brazil from the kingdom of Portugal having put his Britannic majesty in a situation to reclaim the execution, on the part of his most faithful majesty, of the treaties

concluded with the court of Lisbon on the 22nd of January, 1815, and the 28th of July, 1817, which prohibit the exportation of slaves from the coast of Africa to foreign countries; and his majesty the emperor of Brazil desiring to put an end to the trade in slaves, satisfying by such conduct the sentiments of his own heart, and the wishes and desires manifested in this respect by all the sovereigns and governments of civilized nations, and very particularly those manifested by his majesty the king of the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; their said majesties, the emperor of Brazil and the king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, have resolved to adopt and arrange in the present treaty the most efficacious means to suppress the illicit commerce in slaves on the part of their respective subjects, as likewise to bring about the final abolition of the slave-trade in the shortest space of time possible. In consequence of these principles, the two high contracting parties have nominated as their plenipotentiaries, to wit, &c.

Art. I. Four years after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, it shall not be allowed to the subjects of the empire of Brazil to carry on the trade in slaves on the coast of Africa under any pretext or in any manner whatever.

Art. II. The object of this treaty, on the part of the two governments, being to oppose mutually the trade in slaves, the two high contracting parties declare that they shall consider any trading in slaves to be piracy carried on in the following circumstances:—

1. In British ships or vessels, either with the flag, or on account of English subjects in any ship or under any flag.

2. In Brazil vessels, or with the Brazil flag, or on account of Brazil subjects in any vessel, or under any flag, according to the conditions stipulated in the first article of this treaty.

3. Under the Brazil or English flag, on account of the subjects of any other government.

4. By any Brazil vessels destined to any port without the limits of the empire.

Art. III. The territories in which, according to this treaty, the traffic in slaves is permitted for the space of four years, to the subjects of his imperial majesty, are—

1. The territories of the crown of Portugal, on the coast of Africa, to the south of the Equator-viz. on the eastern coast of Africa, the territory comprehended between Cape Delgado and the Bay of Lorenzo Marques; and on the western coast, all the territory comprehended between the 8th and the 18th degree of south latitude.

2. The territories on the coast of Africa to the south of the Equator, over which the crown of Portugal has declared its right, namely, the territories of Molembo and of Cabinda, on the western coast of Africa, from the degree 5. 12 minutes, to the 8th degree south latitude.

Art. IV. His imperial majesty, in accordance with the spirit of the present treaty, shall adopt all the means which may appear the most efficacious to carry into entire and complete effect the laudable objects which the high contracting parties have in view.

Art. V.-Determines the formula of the passports.

Art. VI. The navigation shall be direct from Brazil to the port mentioned in the passport, and the vessels shall return to the same

port whence they sailed, without touching at any other port.

Art. VII. No vessels shall sail till the proprietor or the master present a certificate of their register.

Art. VIII. The high contracting parties, the better to attain the proposed end of preventing all illicit commerce in slaves by their respective subjects, mutually consent, that the ships of war of both marines, which shall be for that end provided with special instructions, of which mention shall be made below, may visit the merchant-ships of both nations, when they have reasonable ground to suspect that they have on board slaves obtained by illicit trade. The same ships of war shall be empowered (not only in cases provided for in the 6th article of this treaty, or when in fact there are slaves on board) to detain and carry into port such vessels for the purpose of having them judged by the tribunals established for that purpose, as shall afterwards be declared; it being well understood that the commanders of both the imperial and royal marines, who may execute this commission, shall observe strictly and accurately the instructions with which they shall be provided for that purpose. This article being entirely reciprocal, the two contracting parties become bound to each other to grant an indemnity for the losses which their respective subjects may suffer unjustly by arbitrary detention, or detention without legal cause by their ships; it being likewise well understood, that the indemnity shall always be at the expense of the government to which the cruiser shall belong which has committed the act of arbitrary detention. Finally, the search or detention of

slave-ships (as it is declared in this article) shall be limited to Brazilian or British ships which belong to either the imperial or royal marine, or which shall be provided with special instructions annexed to the present treaty.

Art. IX.-Brazilian or British cruisers shall not be empowered to detain any slave-ship on board of which there are not actually found slaves; and it shall be necessary, to legalize the detention of any vessel, that the slaves found on board be actually carried for traffic, and that those found on board Brazilian vessels shall have been taken from that part of the coast of Africa beyond the limits specified in the third article of this treaty.

Art. X.-All the ships of war of the two nations which in future shall be destined to prevent the slave-trade, shall be provided by their own government with a copy of the instructions annexed to this treaty, and which shall be considered an integral part of it. These instructions shall be written in Portuguese and English, and prepared for the ships of each of the two nations by their respective ministers of marine. The two high contracting parties reserve to themselves the power of changing entirely or in part these instructions, as circumstances may require; it being well understood that these said changes shall not be made without the common agreement and consent of the two high contracting parties.

Art. XI.-Two mixed commissions, composed of an equal number of individuals of the two nations, shall decide upon the detention of vessels. One shall reside in Brazil, and another in the dominions of his Britannic majesty. Each of the two governments shall declare, in

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