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as shall not have been already occupied, in order to trade with the natives, under the restrictions and conditions specified in the following articles.

II.-In order to prevent the right of navigating and fishing, exercised upon the ocean by the subjects of the high contracting parties, from becoming the pretext for an illicit commerce, it is agreed that the subjects of his Britannic Majesty shall not land at any place where there may be a Russian establishment, without the permission of the governor or commandant; and, on the other hand, that Russian subjects shall not land, without permission, at any British establishment on the north

west coast.

III.-The line of demarcation between the possessions of the high contracting parties, upon the coast of the continent, and the islands of America to the north west, shall be drawn in the manner following:

Commencing from the southermost point of the island called Prince of Wales's Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes, north latitude, and between the 131st and the 133rd degree of west longitude (meridian of Greenwich), the said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland Channel, as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude; from this last-mentioned point the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast, as far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude (of the same meridian); and, finally, from the said point of intersection, the said meridian line of the 141st degree in its prolongation as far as VOL. LXVII.

the Frozen Ocean, shall form the limit between the Russian and British possessions on the continent of America to the north-west.

IV. With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the preceding article, it is understood

1st. That the island called Prince of Wales's Island shall belong wholly to Russia.

2nd. That wherever the summit of the mountains which extend in a direction parallel to the coast, from the 56th degree of north latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude, shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast which is to belong to Russia, as above-mentioned, shall be formed by a line parallel to the windings of the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom.

V. It is moreover agreed, that no establishment shall be formed by either of the two parties within the limits assigned by the two preceding articles to the possessions of the other: consequently, British subjects shall not form any establishment either upon the coast, or upon the border of the continent comprised within the limits of the Russian possessions, as designated in the two preceding articles; and, in like manner, no establishment shall be formed by Russian subjects beyond the said limits.

VI.-It is understood that the subjects of his Britannic Majesty, from whatever quarter they may arrive, whether from the ocean or from the interior of the continent, shall for ever enjoy the right of navigating freely, and without any E*

hindrance whatever, all the rivers and streams which in their course towards the Pacific Ocean may cross the line of demarcation upon the line of coast described in article III. of the present convention.

VII. It is also understood, that for the space of ten years from the signature of the present convention, the vessels of the two powers, or those belonging to their respective subjects, shall mutually be at liberty to frequent, without any hindrance whatever, all the inland seas, the gulfs, havens, and creeks on the coast mentioned in article III. for the purposes of fishing and of trading with the natives.

VIII. The port of Sitka, or Novo Archangelsk, shall be open to the commerce and vessels of British subjects for the space of ten years from the date of the exchange of the ratification of the present convention. In the event of an extension of this term of ten years being granted to any other power, the like extension shall be granted also to Great Britain.

IX. The abovementioned liberty of commerce shall not apply to the trade in spirituous liquors, in fire arms, or other arms, gunpow. der or other warlike stores; the high contracting parties reciprocally engaging not to permit the abovementioned articles to be sold or delivered, in any manner whatever, to the natives of the country. X.-Every British or Russian vessel navigating the Pacific Ocean, which may be compelled by storms or by accident to take shelter in

the ports of the respective parties, shall be at liberty to refit therein, to provide itself with all necessary stores, and to put to sea again, without paying any other than port and light-house dues, which shall be the same as those paid by national vessels. In case, however, the master of such vessel should be under the necessity of disposing of a part of his merchandise in order to defray his expenses, he shall conform himself to the regulations and tariffs of the place where he may have landed.

XI.-In every case of complaint on account of an infraction of the articles of the present convention, the civil and military authorities of the high contracting parties, without previously acting or taking any forcible measure, shall make an exact and circumstantial report of the matter to their respective courts, who engage to settle the same, in a friendly manner, and according to the principles of justice.

XII. The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London, within the space of six weeks, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at St. Petersburgh, the 16th (28th) day of February, in the year of our Lord 1825.

STRATFORD CANNING.
The Count de NESSELRODE.
PIERRE DE POLETICA.

CONVENTION of COMMERCE between GREAT BRITAIN and Denmark.

His majesty the king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain

and Ireland, and his majesty the king of Denmark, being equally

desirous of extending and increasing the commercial intercourse between their respective states, and affording every facility and encouragement to their subjects engaged in such intercourse; and being of opinion that nothing will more contribute to the attainment of their mutual wishes in this respect, than a reciprocal abrogation of all discriminating and countervailing duties which are now demanded and levied upon the ships or productions of either nation in the ports of the other, have appointed their plenipotentiaries to conclude a convention for that purpose, that is to say:

His majesty the king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the right hon. George Canning, a member of his said majesty's most honourable privy council, a member of parliament, and his said majesty's principal secretary of state for foreign affairs; and the right hon. Wm. Huskisson, a member of his said majesty's most honourable privy council, a member of parliament, president of the committee of privy council for affairs of trade and foreign plantations, and treasurer of his said majesty's navy :—

And his majesty the king of Denmark, Charles Emilius count de Moltke, grand cross of the order of Daunebrog, his said majesty's privy councillor of conferences, and his envoy extraordinary at the court of his Britannic majesty; who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles :

Art. 1. From and after the 1st day of July next, Danish vessels entering or departing from the ports of the United Kingdom of

Great Britain and Ireland, and British vessels entering or departing from the ports of his Danish majesty's dominions, shall not be subject to any other or higher duties or charges whatever, than are or shall be levied on national vessels entering or departing from such ports respectively.

Art. 2. All articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture of any of the dominions of either of the high contracting parties, which are or shall be permitted to be imported into, or exported from, the ports of the United Kingdom and of Denmark, respectively, in vessels of the one country, shall, in like manner be permitted to be imported into and exported from those ports in vessels of the other.

Art. 3. All articles not of the growth, produce, or manufacture of the dominions of his Britannic majesty, which can legally be imported from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland into the ports and dominions of the king of Denmark, in British ships, shall be subject only to the same duties as are payable upon the like articles if imported in Danish ships; and the same reciprocity shall be observed, with regard to Danish vessels, in the ports of the said United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in respect to all articles not the growth, produce, or manufacture of the dominions of his Danish majesty, which can legally be imported into the ports of the United Kingdom in Danish ships.

Art. 4. All goods, wares, and merchandise, which can legally be imported into the ports of either country, shall be admitted at the same rate of duty, whether imported in vessels of the other country, or in national vessels; and all

goods, wares, or merchandise, which can be legally exported from the ports of either country, shall be entitled to the same bounties, drawbacks, and allowances, whether exported in vessels of the other country, or in national vessels.

Art. 5. No priority or preference shall be given, directly or indirectly, or by the government of either country, or by any company, corporation, or agent, acting on its behalf, or under its authority, in the purchase of any article, the growth, the produce, or manufacture of either country, imported into the other, on account of, or in reference to, the character of the vessel in which such article was imported; it being the true intent and meaning of the high contracting parties that no distinction or difference whatever shall be made in this respect.

Art. 6. The high contracting parties having mutually determined not to conclude, in the present convention, their respective colonies, in which are comprehended, on the part of Denmark, Greenland, Iceland, and the islands of Ferroe; it is expressly agreed that the intercourse which may at present legally be carried on by the subjects or ships of either of the said high contracting parties with the colonies of the other, shall remain upon the same footing as if this convention had never been concluded.

Art. 7. The present convention shall be in force for the term of ten years from the date hereof; and further, until the end of 12 months after either of the high contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of its intention to terminate the same; each of the high contracting parties reserving to itself the right of giving such

notice to the other, at the end of the said term of ten years; and it is hereby agreed between them, that, at the expiration of 12 months after such notice shall have been received by either party from the other, this convention, and all the provisions thereof, shall altogether cease and determine.

Art. 8. The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London, within one month from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at London, the 16th day of June, 1824. (Signed) GEORGE CANNING. W. HUSKISSON.

C. E. MOLTKE.

Separate Article.

The high contracting parties reserve themselves to enter upon additional stipulations for the purpose of facilitating and extending, even beyond what is comprehended in the convention of this date, the commercial relations of their respective subjects and dominions, upon the principle either of reciprocal or equivalent advantages, as the case may be. And in the event of any articles or article being concluded between the said high contracting parties, for giving effect to such stipulations, it is hereby agreed, that the article or articles which may hereafter be so con. cluded shall be considered as forming part of the aforesaid convention.

The present separate article shall have the same force and validity as if it were inserted, word for word, in the convention signed this day. It shall be ratified, and the ratifi

cation shall be exchanged at the same time.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at London, the 16th day of June, 1824. (Signed)

GEORGE CANNING. W. HUSKISSON. C. E. MOLTKE. Additional Article. Their Britannic and Danish majesties mutually agree, that no higher or other duties shall be levied, in either of their dominions (their respective colonies being excepted from the convention of this date), upon any personal property of their respective subjects, on the removal of the same from the dominions of their said majesties re

ciprocally, either upon the inheritance of such property, or otherwise, than are or shall be payable in each state, upon the like property, when removed by a subject of such state respectively.

The present additional article shall have the same force and validity as if it were inserted word for word in the convention signed this day. It shall be ratified, and the ratification shall be exchanged at the same time.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at London, the 16th day
of June, 1824.
(Signed)

GEORGE CANNING.
W. HUSKISSON.
C. E. MOLTKE.

DECLARATIONS of GREAT BRITAIN and HANOVER, respecting RECIPROCITY of COMMERCE.

The undersigned, his Britannic majesty's principal Secretary of state for Foreign Affairs, and the minister of state and cabinet of his majesty the king of Hanover, hereby declare, in the name of their respective governments

That the Hanoverian government having placed British ships, and all articles imported in such ships, in respect to all duties whether upon the goods or upon the ships, and in respect to charges and privileges of pilotage, upon the same footing with Hanoverian ships, and the like goods, if imported in such ships; and the said Hanoverian government binding itself to observe these conditions, and any other stipulations in favour of the shipping and commerce of

Great Britain, which are contained in a convention between his Britannic majesty and the king of Prussia, concluded and signed at London on the 2nd of April, 1824—

His Britannic majesty engages to extend to the subjects and shipping of the kingdom of Hanover, all the benefits secured by the said convention to the shipping and commerce of Prussia, upon the principle of reciprocity which forms the basis of the said convention.

In witness whereof, they have signed the present declaration, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at London, the 12th day of June, 1824.

(Signed) GEORGE CANNING. MUNSTER.

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