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lity. Fifteen millions of public wealth have now been profitably absorbed by these mighty ducts; and at least half as much more is at this hour destined for their formation. Fifty years ago, there was hardly a steam-engine in the kingdom. There cannot now be less than twelve thousand-a creation of power equal to at least a quarter of a million of horses; an energy which, in a single day, would have raised up the great pyramid of Egypt. Fifty years ago, our annual export of manufactured cotton did not amount to a quarter of a million in value: it has now swollen to nearly thirty millions. In the same period, our exported woollens, in defiance of Saxon, Prussian, Spanish, and American competition, have advanced more than two millions. Fifty years ago, our imports of raw silk were only three hundred thousand pounds in weight: they are now nearly three millions. Fifty years ago, our export of iron was hardly twelve thousand tons: it is now about ten times as much. Fifty years ago, our exports of linens were about four millions of yards: they are now nearly forty millions. Fifty years ago, the whole value of our exported produce, both native and foreign, was just fifteen millions of money: the value of British produce exported, alone, is now more than fifty millions. A hundred and twenty years ago, says old Tucker, there were only two or three vessels in Scotland above two hundred tons; our whole tonnage is now more than a quarter of a million, employing twenty thousand souls. A hundred and fifty years ago, says Chalmers, the whole navy of Britain did not amount to a hundred thousand tons: it is now at least

three millions of tons, employing about two hundred thousand souls.

American Statistics.-The whole number of people in the United States, by the late census, is 9,629,000. Of this number it is stated that 2,065,000 are engaged in agriculture, 349,000 in manufactures, and 72,000 in commerce. Only the efficient or labouring persons in each class appear to have been enumerated. Add the women, the children, and the invalids, and there will be found to be about 8,000,000 in the agricultural class, 200,000 in the commercial, and 1,300,000 in the manufacturing. In England, the agricultural class does not exceed one-third of the whole population. This one-third is not only sufficient to produce bread, stuffs, and provisions enough for themselves and the other two-thirds, but also to produce enough wool for all the extensive woollen factories in the kingdom, with the exception of a small quantity of fine quality. The wool produced amounts annually to 28,000,000 of dollars in value. Four-fifths of our nation are employed to produce the same effects that follow from the labours of one-third of the British nation.

American Mines.-The mines

in Spanish America had been brought to their fullest height of production by the end of the last century, and continued to give to the world annual supplies of unprecedented magnitude till the year 1810. It was then the disturbances broke out, originating in the struggle for independence, and partly from the conflicts of rival parties, which desolated the country, and interrupted the mining operations, especially in Mexico, Peru, and Buenos Ayres. The

degree to which the produce of the mines fell off, has been thus given in a recent publication, "Tooke on High and Low Prices."

Annual produce of American Mines in

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1800 to 1810. After 1810.




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47,061,000 24,501,000

106,000, Versailles 40,000, and Amiens 40,000. In the royal li brary at Paris there are several uncollated MSS. of the Scriptures.

Prison Discipline-The state of crime in Sweden is less than in most other countries. The whole number of persons committed to 12,000,000 prison for offences does not exceed 2,740,000 866,000 1,500-viz., about 800 convicted 1,820,000 of various crimes, and 700 impri4,340,000 soned for vagrancy and other of2,735,000 fences of police. A royal commis sion has been appointed to superintend all the prisons and houses of correction, so as to place their discipline and administration on a common footing. A house of correction is building at Stockholm, in which the prisoners will be allowed part of the gains made by their work, and may lay it up to form a sum against the time of their liberation. Similar measures are also in progress at Christiana, in Norway.

Thus the quantity of the precious metals derived yearly from these sources was reduced one-half in consequence of the war.

Public Libraries in France. In Paris the royal library has above 700,000 printed volumes, and 70,000 MSS. The library of Monsieur 150,000 printed volumes, and 5,000 MSS. The library of St. Genevieve 110,000 printed volumes, and 2,000 MSS. The Mazarine library 92,000 printed volumes, and 3,000 MSS. The library of the city of Paris 20,000 volumes. All these are daily open to the public. In the departments there are 25 public libraries, with above 1,700,000 volumes, of which Aix has 72,670, Marseilles 31,500, Toulouse 30,000, Bordeaux 105,000, Tours 30,000, Lyons

Wolves in Russia. — The following is the official account of the devastations committed by the wolves in the government of Livonia only, in the year 1823: they devoured-horses, 1,841; foals, 1,243; horned cattle, 1,807; calves, 733; sheep, 15,182; lambs, 726; goats, 2,545; kids, 183; swine, 4,190; sucking pigs, 312; dogs, 703; geese, 673.






BRAVE men who at the Trocadero fell-
Beside your cannons conquer'd not, though slain,
There is a victory in dying well

For Freedom, and ye have not died in vain;
For come what may, there shall be hearts in Spain
To honour, aye embrace your martyr'd lot,

Cursing the Bigot's and the Bourbon's chain,

And looking on your graves, though trophied not,

As holier, hallow'd ground, than priests could make the spot!

What though your cause be baffled-freemen cast

In dungeons-dragg'd to death, or forced to flee;

Hope is not wither'd in affliction's blast

The patriot's blood's the seed of Freedom's tree;
And short your orgies of revenge shall be,
Cowl'd Demons of the Inquisitorial cell!
Earth shudders at your victory,-for ye

Are worse than common fiends from Heaven that fell,
The baser, ranker sprung, Autochthones of hell!

Go to your bloody rites again-bring back
The hall of horrors and the assessor's pen,
Recording answers shriek'd upon the rack;
Smile o'er the gaspings of spine-broken men ;-
Preach, perpetrate damnation in your den ;--
Then let your altars, ye blasphemers! peal
With thanks to Heaven, that let you loose again,
To practise deeds with torturing fire and steel


eye may search-no tongue may challenge or reveal!

Yet laugh not in your carnival of crime
Too proudly, ye oppressors !-Spain was free,
Her soil has felt the foot-prints, and her clime
Been winnow'd by the wings of Liberty;
And these even parting scatter as they flee
Thoughts-influences, to live in hearts unborn,
Opinions that shall wrench the prison-key
From Persecution-shew her mask off-torn,
And tramp her bloated head bencath the foot of Scorn.

Glory to them that die in this great cause!
Kings, Bigots, can inflict no brand of shame,
Or shape of death, to shroud them from applause :-
No!-manglers of the martyr's earthly frame!
Your hangman-fingers cannot touch his fame.
Still in your prostrate land there shall be some
Proud hearts, the shrines of Freedom's vestal flame.
Long trains of ill may pass unheeded, dumb,
But vengeance is behind, and justice is to come.



AGAIN to the battle, Achaians!

Our hearts bid the tyrants defiance;

Our land, the first garden of Liberty's tree

It has been, and shall yet be the land of the free:

For the cross of our faith is replanted,

The pale dying crescent is daunted,

And we march that the foot-prints of Mahomet's slaves May be wash'd out in blood from our forefathers' graves.

Their spirits are hovering o'er us,

And the sword shall to glory restore us.

Ah! what though no succour advances,

Nor Christendom's chivalrous lances

Are stretch'd in our aid-be the combat our own!
And we'll perish or conquer more proudly alone:
For we've sworn by our Country's assaulters,
By the virgins they've dragged from our altars,
'By our massacred patriots, our children in chains,
By our heroes of old and their blood in our veins,
That living, we shall be victorious,
Or, that dying, our deaths shall be glorious.

A breath of submission we breathe not;

The sword that we've drawn we will sheathe not!
Its scabbard is left where our martyrs are laid,
And the vengeance of ages has whetted its blade.
Earth may hide-waves engulph-fire consume us,
But they shall not to slavery doom us:

If they rule, it shall be o'er our ashes and graves ;
But we've smote them already with fire on the waves,
And new triumphs on land are before us.

To the charge!Heaven's banner is o'er us.

This day shall ye blush for its story,

Or brighten your lives with its glory.

Our women, Oh, say, shall they shriek in despair,
Or embrace us from conquest with wreaths in their hair?
Accurs'd may his memory blacken,

If a coward there be that would slacken

Till we've trampled the turban and shown ourselves worth
Being sprung from and named for the godlike of earth.
Strike home, and the world shall revere us

As heroes descended from heroes.

Old Greece lightens up with emotion

Her inlands, her isles of the Ocean;

Fanes rebuilt and fair towns shall with jubilee ring,

And the Nine shall new-hallow their Helicon's spring:

Our hearths shall be kindled in gladness,

That were cold and extinguish'd in sadness;

Whilst our maidens shall dance with their white-waving arms,

Singing joy to the brave that deliver'd their charms,

When the blood of yon Mussulman cravens

Shall have purpled the beaks of our ravens.



WELL may sleep present us fictions,
Since our waking moments teem
With such fanciful convictions
As make life itself a dream.-
Half our daylight faith's a fable;
Sleep disports with shadows too,
Seeming in their turn as stable

As the world we wake to view.
Ne'er by day did Reason's mint
Give my thoughts a clearer print



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