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priests who officiate in different chapels in the neighbourhood, where there is no resident priest; and are also ready to succeed or assist those who are at a greater distance. The teachers have each the care of a particular school, and are under the direction of one who is called a superintendant of studies. There are also what are called prefects, who have the superintendence of the scholars at their studies, their sports, and in their walks. Thenumber of scholars are about 200: the greater part of them are Irish, but there are foreigners from every part of the globe. Each scholar pays 50l. per annum. Two hundred (and this number has been sometimes considerably exceeded) produce 10,000l. Their real property may be valued at 40,000l.; including the gift of Mr. Weld, and what they have themselves expended on the purchase of land, and the improvement and enlargement of the building. Their annual revenue may therefore not unfairly be stated at 12,000l. Their gains must have been very considerable to enable them to lay out 30,000l. in about twenty years, and there is no reason to suppose that they are, at present, at all below the general average, yet they are soliciting subscriptions towards building a new chapel (asking for contributions even of their surgeons and physicians), to which they themselves magnanimously subscribe 3001. In the course of the five and twenty years that Stonyhurst has been in possession of its present owners, an entire change has been wrought in the religious character of the neighbourhood, the majority of its inhabitants were not then Roman Catholics, the preponderance was on the side of the Protestants.

At the present time the Protestants are reduced to less than one-seventh of the whole population of the district. Of course the "College," as it is called, gives employment in one way or other, to a great number of persons and none of them are Protestants. Intermarriages between Catholic and Protestant families have been most numerous in the neighbourhood: and this we know to have been the most prolific source of what they term conversions. The refuse meat of 250 or 300 people, the cast-off clothes of nearly the same number (for they provide the scholars with an uniform dress), must either be given away or sold for very little; and it is the general understanding of the neighbourhood, that nobody must look for any thing in the former way of disposal, without, occasionally at least, appearing at mass.

Professor Mezzofanti of Bologna. The following amusing account of this celebrated linguist is given by the baron de Zach, in one of the early numbers of his Correspondence Astronomique, Geographique, &c. :-" This extraordinary savant is very truly the rival of the celebrated Mithridates, king of Pontus. This professor speaks thirty-two living and dead languages, not in the manner of the learned jesuit Weittenauer, but with a perfection truly surprising. Professor Mezzofanti introduced himself to me by addressing me in Hungarian; he paid me a compliment so well turned, and in such good Magyarul, that I was surprised and astonished to the last degree. He then spoke to me in German; first in good Saxon, and afterwards in the Austrian and Swabian dialects, with a purity of accent that raised my astonish

ment to the height; I could not help laughing at the change which the countenance and language of this extraordinary professor put upon me. He spoke English with captain Smith, and Russian and Polish with prince Wolkonsky, with the same ease and volubility as he did his native dialect, the Bolognese. 1 could not quit his side afterwards. At a dinner given by the cardinal Legate, Spina, his eminence made him sit by me at table; after having jargonné with him in several languages, all of which he spoke much better than I did, it occurred to me to address him suddenly with a few words in Walachian. Without the least hesitation, or appearing to notice the change, my polyglot immediately answered me in the same language, and went on at such a rate, that I was obliged to call out to him, Softly, softly, Mr. Abbe, I cannot follow you, I am quite at the end of my Walachian.' It was more than forty years since I had either spoken, or even thought of this language, with which I was very well acquainted in my youth, when I was serving in a Hungarian regiment, garrisoned in Pennsylvania. Professor Mezzofanti was not only well acquainted with this language, but informed me on this occasion that he knew another, which I had never been able to learn, although I had much better opportunities of doing it than him, having had soldiers in my regiment who spoke it. This was the language of the Zigans, or of that tribe which the French improperly call Bohemiennes (gypsies), and at which designation the brave and true Bohemians (the inhabitants of the kingdom of Bohemia) feel very indignant. But how could an Italian Abate, who had never been

out of his native place, learn a language which is neither written nor printed? A Hungarian regiment, during the wars of Italy, had been quartered at Bologna; the professor discovered a Zigan in it, put himself under his tuition, and with the facility and happy memory he derives from nature, soon acquired this language, which is believed to be only a dialect (apparently altered and corrupted) of some tribes of the Parias of Hindostan."

Sierra Leone.-Accounts have been printed, by order of the House of Commons, relating to the duties, exports imports, population, schools, churches, and marriages of the colony of Sierra Leone.

No duties were levied or received in this colony, according to these accounts, prior to the month of August, 1811, and for the latter half of that year the amount collected did not exceed 1017. 5s. 1d. In the following year, however, they amounted to 2,175l. 19s. 4d., but in the years 1813, 1814, and 1815, they do not appear to have exceeded an average of 1,500l. In 1816 they amounted to 2,4471. 16s. 6d., and in the ensuing years, until 1821, they arose to 3, 4, 5, and 6,000l. In the year 1823 they are returned at 8,730l. 8s. from the collector's books.

The exports, which are from the years 1817 to 1823 inclusive, are given in bulk, but not in value, and consist of the produce of Africa in its various states of preparation. Hides, mats, tiger-skins, gold dust, monkey-skins, stuffed birds, honey, nuts, oils, and wax, wood of various kinds, indigo, coffee, rice, lime-juice, and African curiosities; these principally compose the list of exports, and denote a state of

colonization not very much advanced in the cultivation of arts and manufactures.

The imports are also given, but they are in value (not in quality), during the same period, and are chiefly conveyed in ships from London, Liverpool, and Bristol, and the invoice value during the year 1817 was 72,516l. 7s. 24d.; in 1818, 94,7997. 14s. 54d.; but in the following year, 1819, it fell to 80,863l. 6s. 114d., and in 1820, it was only 66,725l. 9s. 44d. In 1821, however, the invoice value is quoted at 105,060l. 15s. 104d.; in 1822 at 85,350l. 14s. 8d.; in 1823 at 121,442l. 18s. 112d.; and in 1824 at 80,917l. 12s. 8d.

A census of the population of the colony is also given for the years 1818, 1820, and 1822. No census of the colony appears to have been taken at the time of its transfer to the Crown, neither was any taken in 1817. The order transmitted from the colonial office required up to the latest time a complete census of the population, exclusive of the military; distinguishing the European, Nova-Scotians, disbanded African soldiers, Kroomen, other African emigrants, and liberated Africans; distinguishing also the sexes, the number of persons married, who have learned to read and write, and the number actually enjoying the means of Christian education. This last order has not yet been complied with, so far as the completion of the census, but was expected to be finished soon.

The grand total of population, according to the census last taken in 1822, is 15,081, of which little more than one-third belongs to Freetown. It is chiefly composed of the following classes:-West Indians and Americans, 48 men, 19 women, 18 boys and girls. Of

natives, 1,327 men, 977 women, and above 1,200 boys and girls. Liberated Africans, 3,312 men, 1,956 women, and between 2,000 and 3,000 boys and girls. Discharged soldiers, 1,103; and Kroomen (who appear to be a migratory race, constantly moving to and from the colony), 947.

Between the census of 1817 and 1818 there appears to have been an increase of population of 2,252 individuals, including 1,190 captured negroes; and between the latter, and that taken in 1822, there is an increase of 2,956 persons, including 943 liberated Africans, and 1,030 discharged soldiers from West Indian and African corps.

The returns of schools show within the last three or four years a very considerable increase of numbers. In 1817, the number of men, women, and children, in course of education, did not much exceed 400. On the 31st of De cember, 1823, there were children, 2,172; adults, 287; making a total of 2,460.

In the account of the number of churches and chapels, with an estimate of the persons attending, we have 24 chapels described, in nearly half of which service is performed by coloured pastors. The number of persons usually attending is 5,818, of whom between 500 and 600 are Wesleyan Methodists, above 200 of Lady Huntingdon's sect, and about half that number Baptists. A detailed account of births in the colony was ordered, but no general record appears to have been kept; and in answer to the order for an account of fit persons liable to serve on juries in the colony of Sierra Leone, it is said that this cannot be correctly ascertained, but that the number

must be very considerable, for that 42 petit, and from 8 to 10 grand jurors are usually summoned every sessions from the coloured inhabitants.

The colonial authorities at Sierra Leone say that they are unable to furnish an account (as ordered) of the number of persons subsisting by the produce of their own labour, distinguishing their several kinds of employment; for that liberated Africans, settled under superintendents in the several villages, are the only persons under the immediate view of the colonial government accounts. The usual rate of wages paid to labourers is 9d. or 10d. per day, and from halfa-crown to 7s. per day to artificers, according to their skill. It is added, however, that these rates of payment are on the decline. In ships and fishing-boats, exclusive of a small number belonging to natives, the property of the inhabitants of the colony is small, and does not exceed a small tonnage. There are about 35 vessels from 10 to 88 tons burden, besides 14 boats employed by fishermen.

Road-Trusts. The turnpike trust committee, for inquiring into the state of the trusts within ten miles of London, have made a report, founded on a large mass of evidence, and calculated, we hope, to bring about considerable relief, both as to economy and comfort, in behalf of the population of this metropolis and its environs. Indifferent roads-toll-gates multiplied beyond endurance enormous taxes, provokingly and universally misapplied to the maintenance rather of a shoal of clerks and other officers, than to the repair of the public avenues to London-have been grievances which the inhabitants as well as travellers loudly

complained of, and which have given rise to the appointment of successive committees, each of which has testified to the serious nature of the evil, and to the urgency of some effectual cure. From the number of separate acts of parliament under which the several trusts were created, there has been no regular principle of management, nor any central and supreme authority by which the interests of the public might be at once protected. The dilapidation of the funds raised for road-making, and the consequent heavy debts under which the trusts (almost without exception) have been labouring, are proofs of a radical vice in the whole system, and obstacles to improvement nearly, if not quite invincible, if measures be not taken to establish in some quarter a more definite responsibility than has ever yet existed. This committee state that the income raised is "much larger" than would be necessary under good management to keep the roads in the best state of repair; that the "accounts were in a very confused state;" that the needless frequency of ill-conducted repairs is, as indeed every one feels, an extreme inconvenience to travellers; that distinct trusts are granted by act of parliament for spots in close contiguity to each other; that sometimes a parish is in the habit of receiving an annual sum from a trust beyond its own limits, for taking upon it the duty of road-repairing which ought to have devolved upon the trust itself, to the extinction of all active responsibility; and that several trusts are in possession of estates, independent of their tolls, which still continue to levy tolls, as if the necessity for them had not been thereby superseded; that the

establishments of offices for carrying on the trust business are more numerous and expensive than they ought to be; the trusts consequently in debt, and money borrowed even at annuity interest, to provide a mode of discharging it. The committee, therefore, recommend that all the trusts near London should be consolidated under a single set of commissioners, for the sake of effecting the three grand objects of durability in the work, economy in the expenses, and relief to the public, by the removal of vexatious obstructions, from the frequency and inconvenient position of the toll-gates.

Poor's Rates.-There has been published by order of the House of Commons, an abstract of returns prepared by the direction of the select committee of last session, appointed to inquire into the practice which prevails in some parts of the country of paying the wages of labour out of the poor's rates, and to consider whether any and what measures can be carried into execution for the purpose of altering that practice, and to report their observations thereon to the House. The present document consists of returns only of the rate of wages throughout the several counties of England, and of answers to a circular list of questions bearing upon the proposed subject of investigation. The committee have not annexed to the abstract a single observation or opinion of their own.

With regard to the wages of labour, it seems worth notice how the growth of manufactures in a country tends to improve the comforts of the agricultural classes in their neighbourhood. The manufacturing districts of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire, and

generally the northern counties, present a far higher average of wages than those of the south of England, besides the benefit, which does not appear on the returns, of a supply of fuel at a much easier price.

In comparing the several districts where the custom prevails of assisting the farmer to pay his labourers out of the poor's rates, with those where such a practice has not yet been suffered, we cannot find that there is any obvious relation between the existence of that abuse, and either a high or low rate of wages. Thus, in the division of Bassetlaw, county of Nottingham, the wages being from 10s. to 12s. per week, are paid in part out of the poor's rates; while, in Southwell division of the same county, the rate not exceeding 10s., the poor's rate is never so applied. Hundreds of instances, bespeaking similar irregularity, might be enumerated, and lead to the belief that more depends on the caprice of the magistrates than on the necessity of the case. Where the system has once commenced, we are aware that more than ordinary skill and firmness are requisite towards its abolition: and in the instance of a labourer with a numerous family, the difficulty of introducing any change seeins almost insurmountable. Something less than one-third of the kingdom is visited by this perversion of the poor's rates.

England Fifty Years ago.-In seventy years the people of Great Britain have advanced full eight millions in number. In twentyfive years, the number of inhabited houses in England and Wales alone have advanced one-half. Fifty years ago, the very existence of canals was a matter of incredu

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