H́nh ảnh trang

she appeared to be quite relieved: so much improved was she, that Professor Herholdt considered her quite well. Thus she remained up to this time, when a new series of sufferings commenced; a painful tumour showed itself in the right armpit, which increased to a great size, and was so very painful that her life was considered in great danger. This swelling also contained needles, and so great was the number, that, from the 26th of May to the 10th of July, 1822, 100 were extracted, making, with the 295 before mentioned, the enormous number of 395 !

The patient is marked with scars in various parts of the body, and is at present in Frederick's Hospital, at Copenhagen, where she has been visited by Dr. Otto and thirty other persons, at different times. The patient's ischury, in the year 1822, left her, and she was, instead of it, attacked by diabetes insipidus, which proceeded to a very great length; her bowels remained obstinately costive, with great emaciation and debility, but hopes are still entertained of her recovery. During this long illness, or rather toward the latter part of it, the patient amused herself by learning Latin, and wrote an account of the principal changes that had occurred in the history of her case.

It is supposed by Professor Herholdt and Dr. Otto that she must have swallowed the needles during delirious fits.

Anatomical Invention. Paris March 27.-M. Ouroux, a physician has presented to the Academy of Sciences, a piece of artificial anatomy, representing the body of a man according to its natural dimensions. Immediately under the skin are exhibited the venous

system, and the superficial coat of muscles. Each muscle may be separately detached, and with it the vessels and nerves that run along its surface, or go through it. The succeeding coats of muscles, &c. may, in like manner be detached and studied separately, or in selection with the other organs of the system, until the student at length arrives at the bare skeleton. A portion of the last coat of muscles and of the vascular and nervous system, the separation of which offered no advantage, remain attached to the bones. In the cavities are found all the organs proper to them. The cranium may be opened and the brain taken out. In this, by means of a cut through its entire mass, may be seen the minutie of its organization. The eye, detached from its orbit, may be studied apart. The muscles, the vessels, the nerves, and the membranes of this delicate organ are represented with scrupulous accuracy; the transparent parts are imitated in glass. The organization of the throat may be examined by means of this piece of mechanism, with greater precision than on a natural subject. In the thoracic cavity is seen the heart, and vessels that branch off from it, and which may be followed to their remotest ramification. One portion of the lungs is divided in two, in order to exhibit the pulmonary circulation. In the abdominal cavity, separated from the preceding by the diaphragm, are found an exact representation of the viscera. On removing the intestinal mass, the veins, the spleen, the liver, &c. are disclosed to view. The preparation of the organs contained in the cavity of the pelvis is particularly worthy of attention. The removal of all

these parts leaves open to inspection the azigos, the thoracic canal, and the grand lymphatic nerve attached to the vertebral column. The price set upon this very ingenious piece of mechanism is 3,000 francs. The wax figure of a man, in the natural proportions, exhibiting merely the outward coat of muscles (the skin being taken off), cannot be had for a less sum than between 30 and 40,000 francs.

Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris-Circulation of the Blood, &c.-Some time since, Dr. Barry, an English physician resident at Paris, read before the Academy of Sciences in that city a memoir on the motion of the blood in the veins. Messrs. Cuvier and Dumeril, were appointed by the Academy to investigate the subject, and draw up a report upon it. These gentle men have lately presented their report. It commences by alluding to the various opinions, which have hitherto been entertained by physiologists, with respect to the cause of the motion of the blood in the veins. Thus some have attributed this motion to the action of the heart; others to the pressure of the muscles; and others again to an absorbing power in the veins themselves. Amidst this diversity of opinion, however, with respect to the cause of this motion, authors have in general agreed in recognizing a certain connexion between the motion itself and the act of inspiration; but this connection was merely looked upon as a coincidence, or at most the act of inspiration was esteemed nothing more than an accessory cause of the motion alluded to.

In the Memoir presented to the Academy by Dr. Barry, a very different view is taken of these facts, which, in the opinion of this

gentleman, are much more intimately connected as to cause and effect, than has hitherto been supposed. "And, in truth," the report proceeds, "he has shewn, by means of experiments entirely new, very ingenious and perfectly conclusive; first, that the blood in the veins is never moved towards the heart but during the act of inspiration; and, secondly, that all the facts known with respect to this motion in man, and the animals which resemble him in structure, may be explained by considering it as the effect of atmospheric pressure."

In conclusion, the report recommends to the Academy-1st. To have the memoir of Dr. Barry inserted among those of distinguished foreign literati-and 2nd. To invite the author to prosecute his researches with respect to the absorption of poisonous matters applied to the surface of the body; researches, it is added, flowing as a corollary from his theory, which possess much interest, and admit of many useful applications to the animal economy.

Experiments on Animal Ingrafting. By Dr. Dieffenbach, of Berlin. The satirical humour of Butler threw an air of disbelief over the operation of ingrafting noses, said to be performed by Taliacotius; but the perseverance of modern experiments has established the fact beyond all contradiction. The following specimens of this art are taken from the German journal of Grafe and Von Walther:

Dr. Dieffenbach ingrafted the feathers of a black chicken into the neck, back, and tail of a white pigeon; while he transferred the white plumes of the pigeon to the black chicken. He next took feathers of various sorts, from

chickens, pigeons, and sparrows, and dibbled them with a trocar, into the skins of rabbits, puppies, and kittens, where they took root and grew. He then dibbled, in the same manner, the long bristles of the whiskers of cats, &c. into the skin of the stript pigeons, with the same success. He next cut a bunch of feathers from the back of a pigeon, within an inch of the skin, pushed a needle down each stump, till the bird showed symptoms of pain, and on withdrawing the needle, he pushed the bristles of a kitten's whiskers into the hole, where they took root and grew well. Not contented with this, the learned doctor ingrafted successfully, upon his own arm, the hairs of a friend's eyebrow. A claw was next detached from the toe of a pigeon, and ingrafted upon its tail. This was the most wonderful experiment of all; for, though the claw did not itself take root in the tail, it seems to have deposited there the egg of a claw; at least a very fine new claw sprouted out from the same place. Some time afterwards, the feather which had been plucked out to make room for the claw, grew again, and an obstinate contest between the claw and the feather took place, for priority of occupancy, but the feather at last succeeded in expelling the intruder. The doctor, in his next experiment, scalped the head of a pigeon, and having cut a flap from the pigeon's thigh, he fitted it to the first wound, and sewed the edges together. It united and made an excellent scalp, and was soon covered with a fine grove of bristles. He next cut off the nose of a wild rabbit, sewed it on again, and it grew as well as ever. Gigantic Organic Remains,

The bones of a non-descript animal of an immense size, and larger than any bones that have hitherto been noticed by naturalists, have been discovered about twenty miles from New Orleans, in the alluvial ground formed by the Mississippi river, and the lakes, and at but a short distance from the sea. They were disinterred by a Mr. W. Schofield, of New Orleans, who spent about a year in this arduous undertaking. A fragment of a cranium is stated to measure twenty-two feet in length; in its broadest part four feet high, and perhaps nine inches thick, and it is said to weigh 1,200lbs. The largest extremity of this bone is thought evidently to answer to the human scapula; it tapers off to a point, and retains a flatness to the termination. From these facts it is inferred that this bone constituted a fin, or fender. One of its edges, from alternate exposures to the tide and atmosphere, has become spongy or porous, but generally it is in a perfect state of ossification. A large groove or canal presents itself in the superior portion of this bone, upon the sides of which considerable quantities of ambergris may be collected, which appears to have suffered little or no decomposition or change by age. It burns with a beautiful bright flame, and emits an odoriferous smell while burning; it is of a greasy consistence, similar to adipocere. It is evident that there was a corresponding fin or fender. The animal, therefore, must have been fifty feet in breadth from one extremity of a fin to the other, allowing for wear and tear, as well as a width of the back proportionate to the length of the fins. There are several of the dorsal vertebræ, and one of the lumbar, and a bone

answering to the os coccygis in our anatomy. The vertebræ are sound, and corresponding in size to the largest bone; the protuberances of the vertebræ are three feet in extent; they lead to the supposition that the animal had considerable protuberances on the back; the body of each vertebræ is at least twenty inches in diameter, and as many in length; the tube or calibre for containing the spinal marrow is six inches in diameter: some of the arterial and nervous indentations, or courses, are yet visible. There is a bone similar to our os calcis, one foot in length, and eight inches in diameter.

It is stated that, in the place, whence these remains were disinterred, a large carnivorous tooth was found, and had been carried away. It is also stated, that, in the year 1799, many remains of antediluvian creation were taken up near the same place, and shipped to Europe. Mr. Schofield feels the most perfect conviction that he could at a slight expense collect many more. He had been hitherto prevented by the high state of the water from obtaining the whole but there was reason to hope that the skeleton might be completely disinterred.

Salmon Fisheries.-The second report of the select committee of the House of Commons, appointed to take into consideration the state of the salmon-fisheries of Scotland, and those of the united kingdom generally, together with the laws affecting the same, has been officially printed.

The report states, that the committee have inquired into the more difficult branches of the subject of the salmon fisheries, and in particular into the important consideration (which is much dwelt upon)

of obstructions to the free passage of salmon, between the sea and the upper parts of lakes and rivers, where the spawn is deposited, and the young fish come into life. They urge, that upon such free passage depends the multiplication of the breed-but then the difficulties interposed spring from the rights, both real and assumed, of parties who have long been in the habit of placing obstructions across the rivers to catch fish on private accounts, while, from their local impediments, they injuriously affect the general breed. Another class of obstructions arises from the application of water (for mills) to the The purposes of manufactures. committee agree, that the salmon fishery ought to be subordinate to the interests of the latter, and they strongly recommend an inquiry into the foundation of right of individuals exercising the former, suggesting at the same time an accommodation of differences, so as to preserve a free passage for the salmon, and more particularly during the fence months and part of the fishing season. There is some slight difference of opinion in the evidence as to the duration of the time during which the fish ought to be fenced from disturbance; but the general wish comprehends the months of October, November, and December. Lowering the wears, and obvious mechanical alterations safely practicable in their structure, would mitigate, if not remove, many of the objections urged against them in this report. The committee dwell strongly upon the clearing away of all obstructions in the rivers as indispensable to the foundation of the fisheries upon any prosperous plan, and point out the mistaken calculation of individuals in the estimate

of their own interests as connected with existing impediments.

The committee have also gone into evidence at considerable length, respecting the modes of taking salmon practised in different parts of the kingdom, with a view to ascertain the circumstances attendant on each, for the future consideration of the legislature. In pursuing this branch of the inquiry the end in view has been, to ascertain what modes of fishing are adapted to the greatest variety of circumstances, calculated to secure the largest supply of good fish, and suited to the habits of the animal. The committee state in conclusion, that they cannot refrain from expressing an opinion, that the salmon fisheries are eminently deserving, and stand greatly in need of, the protection of the legislature; and that there is every reason to believe, under the influence of a general law, founded in sound principle, that they might rise to an importance and magnitude hitherto unknown. But how is this law to be framed, until the inquiries into individual rights creating ruinous obstructions, recommended by the committee at the outset, shall have been gone through? And what chance is there, upon so vague a recommendation, of having these inquiries made at all, when the poverty in many instances of the parties is considered -fishermen at the one side, and corporate monopolies at the other; and not the least outline given by the committee of the manner and form in which such investigations should be prosecuted? Perhaps the easiest, and certainly the cheapest, process of conducting this litigation would be by the ordinary mode of indictment for nuisance-a mode by which it is

known that several wears were removed at various times (though not of late years) in the south of Ireland.

The great, and indeed universal evil complained of throughout the mass of evidence taken before the committee, is the havoc in the breed occasioned by fishing in the tributary streams during the spawning season, and various schemes are suggested by way of dams to prevent the progress of salmon from the large rivers into these streams, and thereby avert the work of untimely destruction which is so severely censured.

There is a good deal of contradictory evidence upon the point whether salmon always continue to spawn in the same rivers; the general tendency of the testimony is, however, rather to affirm that fact, and experienced fishermen profess to distinguish with certainty the fish of the several rivers. We have the following curious information respecting the natural history of the salmon. To prove that the grilse and salmon are one species,

we marked," says Mr. Mackenzie "in the month of March, 1823, a grilse keip in the river Oykell, by tying a piece of wire round the body of the fish, immediately above the tail, and in March, 1824, we caught the same fish again as a salmon of about 7lb. weight, though it was only 34lb. when we marked it." Other witnesses confirm to demonstration this evidence as to the identity of the grilse and salmon. The rev. John Fleming gives the following evidence of the fruitfulness and extraordinary precocity of the fish :

"Fish are well known to breed long before they have arrived at maturity, and as a proof that they do, it may be stated that at the end

« TrướcTiếp tục »