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thing of ghastliness to the general appearance. His teeth are perfect; his power of mastication very good, there is no defect in the strength of the jaws. His right shoulder inclines very much downwards, while the left

rises in proportion. The upper joints of the armis present nothing but bones covered with the skin, their circumference measuring just four inches; while the fore arms, on the contrary, are five inches and a half. The hands are particularly long, and the nails beautifully formed; but the fingers are contracted upwards. The muscles of the arms are, however, wasted away or contracted, so that our subject does not possess the power of elevating the hands higher than in a semi-horizontal position, and when in that attitude nothing can possibly exceed the sepulchral appearance of this living anatomy. Perhaps one of the most wonderful circumstances attending the living skeleton is, that if measured externally from the chest to the back bone, the distance is under three inches.

Taken round the waist at the bottom of the ribs, the body measures barely one foot eleven inches, and when the object throws its arms backwards, the shoulderblade-bones are scarcely one inch asunder. From the vertebrae of the back, taken between the shoulders to the centre of the loin, the falling-in is not less than five inches.

The thighs are much smaller than the legs, and, like the upper joints of the arms, merely covered with skin; the knees of a reddish colour, protrude in the front and sides, forming as it were a bowl at the bottom of the thigh-bones. The legs, of which the right is the largest, merely show signs of calves,

particularly the latter; and the main arteries of the exterior of the thighs and legs are large and full, which were, no doubt, augmented by the excessive heat of the weather.

When in France he ate very little if any animal food, a penny French-roll was enough for a day's sustenance; but as he now partakes of animal diet in very small quantities, his portion of bread is reduced accordingly.

His digestion is extremely good, and the evacuations of nature regularly performed-his sleep is uninterrupted, except at certain periods, when he has violent attacks of the night-mare; to dispel which his father, who always sleeps with him, and carefully watches his motions, on perceiving their approach, merely touches him with the hand, when the whole subsides. His voice is by no means strong, but far from disagreeable: he has a particular passion for music, and even can sing in a faint tone: but conversation must not be kept up for any length of time, as complete exhaustion would be the consequence. When speaking, the rotatory motion through the skin of the neck is perceptible, and the pulsation of the heart conspicuous to the eye.

In raising either of his feet from the floor, the limb appears to be distended uselessly from the knee, and we cannot better illustrate this idea than by that sensation we commonly experience upon allowing a limb to remain too long in one position, thereby causing a temporary strangulation of the vessels, known by the common term of the foot being asleep.

Previous to the arrival of this extraordinary creature in England, the French physicians who had in

spected him gave it as their opinion, that his lungs were placed in a different position to that usually occupied in the human frame. Since his arrival, sir Astley Cooper, by whom he has been visited, finds that his heart is placed so much out of the common region allotted to it, that it is precisely its own length lower than if properly placed.

The health of this singular being has been uninterruptedly good, except about five years ago, when he had a liver complaint, which subjected him to the application of numerous leeches, the traces of which are still visible on his skin. His respiration is confined, being the necessary result of a contraction of the lungs; yet, upon the whole, he does not appear to be much inconvenienced on that account, in consequence of the little exercise he takes and the consequent quiescent state of the animal system.

In regard to the texture of the skin of this living wonder, it is of a dry, moistless, parchment-like appearance, which, covering any other human form, would not answer the purposes of its functions, but seems calculated alone to cover the slender juiceless body of the being whom nature intended to array. On the shins nodes appear in the form of buttons, though not obtrusively to the eye, and the toes of the feet are bent over one another.

The ribs are not only capable of being distinguished, but may be clearly separated, and counted one by one, and handled like so many pieces of cane, and, together with the skin which covers them, resemble more the hoops and outer covering of a balloon of a small size, than any thing in the ordinary course of VOL. LXVII.

nature. We come now to the action produced by the efforts of the lungs, and which, strange as it may appear, does not proceed from the chest as in ordinary cases, but from the lower extremity of the abdomen, as though the organs of respiration, from excessive laxity, had absolutely descended from their proper sphere, and that, by a tenacious effort of nature, unwilling to yield possession of her functions, they had accommodated themselves by time to such an unnatural and incredible position.

The subject is presented to view in a state of nudity, save a mere covering of several inches deep round the loins, through which are cut large holes to admit of the hip-bones to pass, for the purpose of keeping it in its proper place. The poor fellow appears conscious of the only use that can now be derived from his crazy frame, and, as the last and only good he can bequeath to his more fortunate beholders, patiently submits to every proper examination, and readily answers any question at all calculated to elucidate his extraordinary state and existence.

History of a patient from whom three hundred and ninety-five needles were extracted.-The history of this case has been published by Dr. Otto, of Copenhagen.

Rachael Hertz, had, up to her 14th year, lived in the enjoyment of pretty good health; she was of a delicate constitution, active, and cheerful. On the 16th of August, 1807, she came under the care of professor Herholdt for a violent colic, which soon yielded to the employment of antiphlogistic medicines. She continued well up to the 24th of November of the same year, at which time she was seized with

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erysipelas of the face, accompanied with severe fever, which subsided in about the usual time, but returned again very frequently during the three following months.

In March, 1808, the patient found herself very weak, and became gradually emaciated; her countenance was pale and haggard, and many symptoms appeared which partook of an hysteric nature, but which would not yield to the ordinary anti-hystercial medicines.

From March, 1808, to the end of May, 1809, a period of fourteen months, she suffered from very distressing paroxysms of hysteria, sometimes accompanied by fainting, so severe that many persons thought that she was dead. At other times she was seized with violent epileptic attacks, and some times with high delirium, drowsiness, and hiccup. These symptoms continued from March to May, 1808, and during the fits of delirium she repeated long passages from the writings of Goethe, Schiller, Shakspeare, and Oehlenschlager; she delivered them with a loud voice and with as correct an emphasis as any one in health could do; and although at such times her eyes were closed, she accompanied her declamations with suitable gesticulations. The delirium went on increasing, and at last reached a fearful height; she gnashed with her teeth, bit the people about her, and kicked and fought with great violence, so as to disturb, not only her own household, but the whole neighbourhood with her ravings: sometimes she lay in a soporose state, deprived of all sense and power of motion, appearing scarcely to breathe, and would again suddenly start up and utter wild and piercing shrieks.

On the 20th of May, a violent vomiting of blood, continuing for three days and nights, more or less, was added to the list of her former complaints, followed by a cough, hiccup, and purging of a very darkcoloured offensive matter.

On the 5th July, 1809, she was seized with a peculiar pain in the lower belly; she complained of nausea, a sense of writhing, and great uneasiness in the region of the left flexure of the colon, with great anxiety of countenance and depression of spirits: to this succeeded a severe and obstinate ischuria, which was treated in the usual manner without much benefit; a careful examination of the rectum showed that there was a stricture of the gut, and that the distension about the strictured point pressed upon the urethra and bladder. The rectum was so firmly contracted that the pipe of an injecting syringe was with difficulty passed; the daily employment of the catheter was necessary in order to procure the evacuation of the urine, till at length, by the use of various diuretic medicines, the hip-bath, aromatic fomentations, and copious injections, the spasmodic contraction of the rectum was overcome, and with it the globus hystericus was also removed; the ischury continued, however, just as bad as before, notwithstanding the further cmployment of the same remedies for a great length of time.

In the beginning of March, 1809, the general state of the patient was somewhat improved, and she was able at last to take some rest, which afforded a hope that a favourable change had taken place; she soon verged into the opposite extremes, and became so comatose that it was necessary to give sti

mulating medicines in large doses. About the middle of the day this unfortunate woman lay as if dead, deprived of sense and motion, and the respiration so slow, that it appeared at times altogether suspended, and the pulse was so small and soft that it could scarcely be felt. Medicine could accomplish nothing for her relief, and during the space of a week she took no thing to eat or drink; her bowels were opened only once in eight days, and then without her knowledge.

On the 13th of May, 1809, she was seen by the celebrated Callisen, who recommended that snuff should be introduced into the nose, in order to rouse her from that comatose state in which she was at times plunged, and the first essay was attended with great success; it did not produce sneezing but restored her to her senses, and during the rest of the day the power of motion also returned. During the eight following days the snuff produced less effect, and the patient gradually reverted to her former state of torpor, drowsiness, and delirium, which continued with the ischury, more or less severe, from the 18th of May, 1809, to the 8th of December, 1810.

At the end of November, 1810, she was seized with extreme weakness: her extremities were cold, the countenance had a cadaverous appearance, the deglutition was difficult, the respiration slow and laborious, and interrupted frequently by sighs; the bowels much constipated, and the secretion of urine almost entirely suppressed. From this she again gradually recovered, but remained incapable of moving the right side. During the two following years she enjoyed tolerable health.

In April 1813, she had the measles, and in July of the same year she was attacked by intermittent fever, succeeded by cough and some vomiting of blood. Cooling vegetable acids were administered, with sedatives, and by the end of November these complaints were removed, and up to the 13th of June, 1814, she remained pretty well. A large carbuncle then made its appearance on the left thigh, which was removed by the ordinary means.

In May, 1816, the patient was seized with violent pains in the abdomen, particularly about the region of the left hypochondrium, succeeded by vomiting of blood, from which she again recovered, and remained without any relapse for about three years.

In January, 1819, violent colic pains seized the patient, attended with considerable fever and purging of blood, and so low was she reduced, that no one who saw her thought that she could recover.

On the 2nd of February, a tumour, which had appeared just beneath the umbilicus was examined, and was found to consist of three principal divisions or lobes; sedative and emollient cataplasms were applied to this, but the pain was not assuaged; the patient appeared to be gradually sinking. She remained very low until the 12th of February, when Professor Herholdt considered it necessary to make a deep incision into the swelling, in order to let out any pus that might have been contained in it. No matter came out, and but very little blood; he then examined the wound with a probe, and felt it strike against something, which communicated the sensation to the hand of its being a metallic body; with a forceps he laid hold

of it, and, to his great surprise, drew out a needle. All the symptoms gradually subsided, but soon after returned again with a fresh vomiting of blood. The abdomen was again examined, and another tumour was discovered in the left lumbar region, the slightest touch of which occasioned great pain.

On the 15th of February, an incision was made into it, and a black oxydised needle extracted from its centre. From this time, that is to say, from the 12th of February, 1819, to the 10th of August, 1820, a period of 18 months, the patient experienced pains in different parts of the body, supposed to be occasioned by needles deeply seated, and during that time 295 needles were at different intervals extracted; namely

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22

14

41

between the breasts
the epigastric region
the left hypochondriac region 19
20
right hypochondriac region

the navel...

the left lumbar region

the right ditto

...

31

39

23

17

the hypogastric region

14

right iliac region

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left iliac region

27

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3

23

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Total ............... 295

Many of them were broken or cor-
roded, some being without points,
others without eyes; some were
large and black, like the pins used
for dressing the hair, and others
were small.
The brass needles
retained their proper polish, but
all the others were black and oxy-
dised. They made their appear-
ance at different intervals; some-
times days, weeks, and months in-
tervening between the times of

the extraction. The patient, dur-
ing the greatest part of this time,
was so low and weak that she was
obliged to keep to her bed, and
although she did not experience
much pain when the needles were
deep, yet as soon as they approach-
ed the surface her sufferings were
Professor Herholdt
very great.

was often urged to cut into the
skin to seek for the needles, and
thus to afford some relief to the
patient, but such attempts were
without success; it was in vain
that he sought for them; he was
obliged to wait several days, until
the needies appeared in the wound,
or could be distinguished by the
touch. Only once did he attempt
to draw out a needle with his
fingers from the breast without
making an incision, but the needle
broke and he was obliged to make
two openings to get it out. On
four occasions only did any bleed-
ing follow the extraction, but no
suppuration attended a single case.
The patient bore her sufferings
with wonderful fortitude until
January, 1822; when her mother
was seized with an apoplectic fit,
which had such an effect upon her
mind that she became paralytic,
first in her right arm, then in her
left, and afterwards in her lower
extremities also; she lost the use
of speech, so that neither by words
nor by signs could she direct the
attention of the by-standers to the
places at which the needles gave
her pain. In about five days the
voice returned, and up to the 10th
of August, 1820, no more needles
were discharged; the pain in the
bowels, and other symptoms, had
also ceased. By the employment
of antispasmodic medicines, cold
baths, blisters, and so on, the
patient gradually became better,
and, on the 8th of March, 1821,

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