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We are deeply affected by this sacrifice, which our dearly beloved brother has resolved to make with such great self-denial for the confirmation of the hereditary statutes of our imperial house, and the unshaken tranquillity of the Russian empire.

After having invoked the assistance of God, and having duly and maturely considered an object as dear to our heart as it is important to the state, and finding that the statutes which related to the order of succession to the throne do not deprive those who have a right to it of the power of relinquishing the same, if no difficulty exists with respect to the line of succession, we have, therefore, with the previous consent of our illustrious mother, as well as the high power of the head of the imperial family, which came to us by inheritance, and mindful of the power granted to us by God, commanded as follows:

In the first place, the voluntary act by which our elder brother the Cesarowitsch and grand duke Constantine renounced his rights to the Russian throne, shall remain firm and irrevocable. In order to secure the publicity of the said act of renunciation, it shall be deposited in the grand cathedral church of Ascension at Moscow, and with our three highest authorities, the holy synod, these nate, and the directing senate.

Secondly, With respect to the arrangement, and in conformity with the exact tenor of the act of succession to the throne, we acknowledge, as our successor, our second brother, the grand duke Nicholas. In this manner we reserve to ourselves the pleasing hope, that on the day when it shall please the King of kings, according

to the universal law of all mortals, to call us from our temporal government to eternity, the chief state officers of the empire (to whom our present and irrevocable will, as also our present legal appointment, shall, by our order, be communicated in due time) will use all diligence in swearing the oath of allegiance to the hereditary emperor whom we have just now appointed to the throne of the Russian empire, as well as to the inseparable throne of the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Finland.

With respect to ourselves, we request all our faithful subjects will, with the same sentiments of love and affection which caused us to consider the care for their con stant happiness as our greatest blessing upon earth, direct their fervent prayers to our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, that, in his infinite mercy, he may receive our souls into his everlasting kingdom

Done at Tzarsko-selo, the 16th of August, in the year of our Lord 1823, and 23rd year of our reign.

(Signed)

ALEXANDER

Fourth Supplement.

Letter from his Imperial Highness the Cesarowitsch Grand Duke Constantine, to her Majesty the Empress Mother.

Most Gracious Princess, Dearest Mother;-With the greatest anguish of heart, I received last evening, at seven o'clock, from baron Von Dietisch, chief of the general staff of his Imperial Ma jesty, and from the adjutant-ge neral, prince Volkonsky, the ac companying original intelligence, and act of the decease of our adored ruler, my benefactor, the

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The situation in which this misfortune places me, makes it my duty to pour into the bosom of your Imperial Majesty my real sentiments candidly and openly upon this important subject.

Your Imperial Majesty knows, that, following my own inclination, I requested of the emperor Alexander, of glorious memory, the permission to renounce the right of succession to the throne, and that in consequence thereof, I received an imperial rescript, dated 2nd February, 1822, an attested copy of which is enclosed, whereby the emperor communicated his gracious consent to the request, with the observation that your Imperial Majesty had also given your consent, which you have verbally confirmed to me. The commands of the deceased emperor were, moreover, to the effect, that the said gracious rescript should remain in my hands under the seal of secrecy, until the death of his majesty.

Accustomed from my infancy conscientiously to fulfil the will of my deceased father, as well as the late emperor, and that of your Imperial Majesty, and still maintaining the limits of this principle, I consider it as my duty to resign my right of succession to the throne to his imperial highness the grand duke Nicholas and his heirs, in conformity to the appointment in the imperial ukase respecting the order of succession in the imperial family.

With the same candour I make it my duty to declare, that, without extending my wishes any further, I shall deem myself happy that, if after more than thirty years' service devoted to my father and brother, the late emperors, of glorious memory, I may be permitted to dedicate them for the future to his majesty the emperor Nicholas with the same high esteem, with the same fervent zeal, and the same unlimited submission, which have animated me on all occasions, and will do so to the end of my days.

Having thus expressed my real and irrevocable opinion, I throw myself at the feet of your Imperial Majesty, whilst I most submissively implore you to deign a gracious reception of the present letter, and graciously to grant that the contents may be made known to all whom it may concern, in order that it may be carried into effect, and that thereby the will of his majesty the emperor, my deceased lord and benefactor, as well as the consent of your Imperial Majesty, may be put in full force and effect.

I take the liberty of submitting to you herewith a copy of the letter which I have, at the same time, addressed to his majesty the emperor Nicholas.

I remain, with profound regard,
Most gracious princess

And dearest mother, Your Imperial Majesty's most obedient son, (Signed) CONSTANTINE. Warsaw, November 26, 1825.

Fifth Supplement.

Letter from his Imperial Highness the Cesarowitsch Grand Duke Constantine to his Majesty the Emperor Nicholas.

Dearest Brother ;-With inde

scribable anguish of heart I received last night, at one o'clock, the painful intelligence of the decease of our adored master, my benefactor, the emperor Alexander. Whilst I hasten to express to you the feelings with which the melancholy misfortune we have sustained fills me, I make it my duty to inform you, that I have at the same time herewith sent a letter to her majesty the empress, our much beloved mother, wherein I announce to her, that in consequence of an autograph rescript, which I received from the deceased emperor on the 2nd of February, 1822, in answer to the letter which I had written to him respecting the renunciation of the succession to the imperial throne, and which letter was laid before our mother, and to which she deigned to give her consent, subsequently to me personally confirmed, that it is my irrevocable resolution to renounce to you my right of succession to the throne of the emperor of all the Russias; and, at the same time, I requested my much-beloved mother to make known to all whom it may concern, my irrevocable will, in order that it may be carried

into execution. After this declaration, I deem it a sacred duty to implore your Imperial Majesty to accept from me, as the first person, the oath of submission and fidelity, and to allow me to make known to you, that as my wishes are not directed to any new dignity or title, I

wish solely to retain that of Cesarowitsch, with which I was honoured by our late father for my services.

It will constantly constitute my sole happiness, if your Imperial Majesty will deign to accept the sentiments of my profound regard and unbounded submission, sentiments for which I pledge more than thirty years' faithful services and pure zeal, which have animated me for my late father and brother, emperors of glorious memory.

With like sentiments I shall not cease till the end of my days to serve your Imperial Majesty and illustrious successors in my present appointments and situation. I remain, with profound regard, Sire, Your Imperial Majesty's most loyal Subject,

(Signed) CONSTANTINE. Warsaw, November 26, 1825.

ORDER of the DAY of the EMPEROR to the RUSSIAN Army.

Brave Russian army! faithful defenders of the throne and the country!-which of you was not bowed down by the dreadful news which has plunged us and all Russia in unspeakable affliction ? You have lost a sovereign, a father, a benefactor, a companion of your immortal deeds. Yet, let not your hearts yield to despondency. His looks are directed to you from above, and he blesses the fruits of

his indefatigable pains which he had bestowed on your organization. Faithful, brave soldiers! You have again, even in these days of affliction, acquired immortal glory equal to that which you purchased with your blood when you conquered the enemies of the sovereign and the country.

You have shown by your conduct, that you, who are constant defenders of the imperial throne on the

field of battle, know how to obey in time of peace the laws and the sovereign will.

As a mark of my regard for you, regiments of the Guard Preobrashenski Semenoski, Ismailowski, Grand Yagers, Finland Yagers, Pawlowski Grenadiers, Chevalier Guards, Mounted Guards, Hussars, Mounted Yagers, and Artillery of the Guards, I make you a present of the uniforms which his majesty the emperor, your benefactor, used to wear. Each regiment shall preserve this sacred deposit, as a monument to be transmitted to posterity.

I further order

perial Majesty, shall wear on their epaulets the cipher of his majesty the emperor Alexander 1st so long as there shall be in their companies one of the officers or soldiers who belonged to them on the 19th of November (1st December), 1825.

2. The generals about the person of his Majesty, as also the aides-de-camp-general, and the aides-de-camp of his Imperial Majesty, shall continue to wear the cipher.

Brave warriors! preserve for ever the sacred remembrance of Alexander 1st. Let it be the terror of your enemies, the hope of the country, the pledge of your fidelity and attachment to my person.

NICHOLAS.

1. All officers and soldiers of the companies of the regiments Preobrashenski, Semenoski, which bear St. Petersburgh, Dec. 15 (27), the name of companies of his Im

1825.

TREATY between the EMPEROR of BRAZIL and the KING of PORTUGAL.

In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

His most faithful majesty having constantly in his royal mind the most lively desire to re-establish peace, friendship, and good harmony between sister nations whom the most sacred ties ought to conciliate and unite in perpetual alliance, in order to accomplish these important ends, to conduce to general prosperity, and to secure the political existence and the future destinies of Portugal, as well as those of Brazil; and desiring at once to renounce every obstacle that might impede the said alliance, concord, and happiness of both states, by his diploma of the 13th of May of the current year, recognises Brazil to hold the name of an independent empire, and separate from the kingdom of Portu

gal and Algarve, and his best beloved and esteemed son don Pedro as emperor, yielding and transfering, of his own free will, the sovereignty of the aforesaid empire to his aforesaid son and his legitimate successors, only taking and reserving for his own person the same title. And these august lords, accepting the mediation of his Britannic majesty to adjust all preliminary questions regarding the separation of the two states, have named plenipotentiaries, to wit-his imperial majesty names the most illustrious and most excellent Luiz Joze de Carvalho e Melo, of the council of state, dignitary of the imperial order of the Southern Cross, commander of the orders of Christ and of the Conception, and minister and secretary of state for Foreign Affairs; also

the most illustrious and most excellent baron de Santo Amaro, grandee of the empire, of the council of State, gentleman of the imperial chamber, dignitary of the imperial order of the Southern Cross, and commander of the orders of Christ and of the Tower and Sword; and also the most illustrious and most excellent Francisco Villela Barboza, of the council of State, grand cross of the imperial order of the Southern Cross, knight of the order of Christ, colonel of the imperial corps of engineers, minister and secretary of state for the Naval Department, and inspector general of marines.

His most faithful majesty names the right hon. his excellency sir Charles Stuart, privy councillor of his Britannic majesty, grand cross of the order of the Tower and Sword and of the Bath; and full powers having been presented and exchanged, they have agreed, in conformity with the principles laid down in the preamble, that the present treaty should be framed.

Art. 1. His most faithful majesty recognizes Brazil to hold the rank of an empire, independent and separate from the kingdoms of Portugal and Algarve, and his best beloved and esteemed son, don Pedro, as emperor, yielding and transferring, of his own free will, the sovereignty of the said empire to his said son and his legitimate successors, his most faithful majesty only taking and reserving the same title for his own person.

2. His imperial majesty, as an acknowledgment of respect and affection for his august father and lord, don John 6th, agrees that his most faithful majesty in his own person assume the title of emperor.

3. His imperial majesty promises not to accept the proposals

of any Portuguese colonies, whatever, to unite themselves with Brazil.

4. Henceforth there shall be peace and alliance and the most perfect friendship between the empire of Brazil and the kingdoms of Portugal and Algarve, with perfect oblivion of the past dissensions between the respective nations.

5. The subjects of both nations, Brazilians and Portuguese, shall be considered in the respective states as those of the most favoured and friendly nations, and their rights and property shall be religiously guarded and protected; it being understood that the owners of real estates shall be maintained in the peaceable possession of such estates.

6. All property, whether real, personal, or moveable, sequestered or confiscated and belonging to the subjects of the two sovereigns of Brazil and Portugal, shall be forthwith restored, together with their arrears, deducting the expenses of the administration thereof; or their proprietors shall be indemnified according to the rules laid down in the 1st article.

7. All ships and cargoes taken, belonging to the subjects of both sovereigns, shall be in like manner restored, or their owners indemnified.

8. A commission named by both governments, composed of an equal number of Brazilians and Portuguese, and established when the respective governments shall judge most expedient, shall be charged to examine the matters treated of in the 6th and 7th articles; it being understood that claims must be made in the space of one year from the formation of the commission; and in the case

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