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beyond our expectation; and, what ought to fill us with complacency, and even with pride, all this is realizing itself by establishing a system difficult and new on the basis of knowledge.

The view of our relations with most foreign states is equally flattering and satisfactory with our internal condition; and the Chambers have a prospect of fortune, splendor, and greatness, which the powers of the Republic will consolidate by good faith, justice, and moderation. England, the most powerful state of Europe in respect to us, has acknowledged the independence of Anahuac; and that nation which, living thousands of leagues from our shores, may yet be said to inhabit the American continent, and to border on our confines, has concluded on this basis treaties of amity, navigation, and commerce, which have been duly submitted to the Chambers, and now received their approbation. Such an event, which will be one of the most memorable in our history, increases the power and consideration of the Republic; and its example will not fail to be imitated by ultramarine powers, who cannot, did they desire it, do us harm, and whom we can benefit by opening to them our markets under the same guarantee. Perhaps some years will pass before a certain Power will offer to recognize us, and confess the legitimacy of our emancipation, although that Power ought to have been the first to anticipate it; and, although many opportunities have been presented for that purpose, determined on self-destruction, and existing in a condition of weakness and consumption, its eyes acquire new animation to direct against us their threatening looks. But these

paroxysms of fury will one day cease, and when the epoch of reconciliation arrives-an epoch which we desire no less for our good than for its own-then it will acknowledge, that while its impotent rage endeavoured to deprive us of liberty and all its advantages, we, on the contrary, were animated towards it with sentiments of moderation, benevolence, and generosity.

"Coming now to the American nations, I have to state that our plenipotentiary has already resided some time in Washington in all the plenitude of diplomatic acknowledgment, while in a short time the plenipotentiary of the United States of the north, who has already reached our territory, will reside in our capital. On the same footing, the ambassador of our sister republic and ally, the warlike Colombia, remains amongst us; and, being about to nominate, as soon as possible, on our part, a plenipotentiary, we have at present a chargé d'affaires in that republic. The minister of the united states of Central America has some time ago presented his credentials, and has been solemnly recognized in Mexico; while the Mexican government, on its part, has proposed to the senate a reciprocal mission to these states. Finally, a mission has set out to put us in contact with the head of the Church; and desiring to lose no opportunity of promoting our improvement, youths have been appointed to devote themselves to the study of diplomacy, and some pensioners from our academy have been selected, who, by acquiring the best taste in the fine arts, may be able to transplant them into our republic."

On the first day of August, an extraordinary session of the congress was opened. There occurred

some difficulty concerning the ceremonies to be observed on that occasion, as the constitution had not provided for it. It was, however, determined by both Houses, that the same forms should be observed as at ordinary sessions. Accordingly the president of the Republic met the two Houses and delivered to them an address, to which a reply was made by the speaker of the House of Representatives.

'In June, the Spanish ship of the line, the Asia, carrying 68 guns, and the brig Constantia, went over to the Mexicans. The stipulations of their surrender were, that the crews should receive from the Independent government the pay due to them from Spain, and should have permission to reside in any of the South American States, or to go elsewhere.

After an obstinate resistance, the impregnable castle of St. Juan de Ulloa, seeing no hope of aid from Spain, at last surrendered to the Mexicans. On the 17th of November, the articles of the capitulation were agreed upon; and on the 18th, the ratifications were exchanged. On the 19th, at 12 o'clock, the remnant of the garrison, consisting of 126 men, were embarked for the Havannah, while the sick, amount ing to 200 men, came on shore, and the Mexican flag was hoisted on the castle. The articles of the capitulation were, that the castle, with its appurtenances, should be surrendered by the Spaniards; that the garrison should retain its arms and private property, and be transported to the Havannah at the expense of Mexico; and that all private property should be given up to its owners on paying the customary duties.

The tranquillity of Guatemala, or Central America, was disturbed

in the beginning of the year by some disturbances in the province of Leon: but these were quickly suppressed; and the administration of central America began to assume a regular form. The Federal Congress was installed on the 6th of February. The contest for the presidency, lay between Don Manuel Jose de Asce, and the señor del Valle. The former prevailed by a majority of 17 to 6. The vicepresidency was then unanimously offered to the latter, and after his refusing it four times, Don Mariano Beltrenenn was elected to that office. The president and vice-president were inaugurated with all due solemnity; the senate, consisting of eleven members, was created; the high court of justice was installed in its functions; and the new form of government was established in a manner apparently durable. The salary assigned to the president was 10,000 dollars per annum; to the vice-president, 4,000; to the senators, 2,000 each; and to the deputies of congress, 1,200. The estimate of charges for the current year, as laid before the congress, was as follows, viz.-the ministry of State, 54,950 dollars; of Justice and Ecclesiastical affairs, 17,600; of Finance, 178,208; of War and Marine, 627,828; making a total of 878,568 dollars. Some of those items afterwards underwent a reduction; and as the war department included the charge for militia, which was defrayed by each province separately from its particular funds, the whole expenses of the federal government were estimated on the whole at something less than 600,000.

The congress of Columbia assembled on the 2nd of January ; and the message of the vice-president Santander, which will be

be found in the Appendix, gives a detailed view of the relations and circumstances of that republic with a precision of thought and clearness of language, not often to be found in the bombastical statepapers of the politicians of South America. The government seems to have been anxious to support its credit by providing means for the diminution of the national debt; and with this view a decree was published on the 29th of March, by which one fourth part of the produce of the maritime custom-houses was appropriated as a fund for the payment of the foreign loans, and another fourth part, to the redemption of the domestic debt created before 1821. The privateers and ships of war of Colombia made their appearance in considerable numbers off the ports of Spain, and inflicted new wounds on the already languishing commerce of that miserable and degraded country.

The treaties of Colombia with Great Britain and the United States gave her at last a definite place among the nations of the world: and her envoy, M. Hurtado was the first embassador from the Spanish part of the new world, who was presented at the English court.

In the history of the former year, we traced the military operations in Peru till the end of September. In the next two months, nothing of decisive importance to the fate of the campaign occurred. Bolivar returned to Lima: the royalists concentrated their forces; and the patriots, under the command of general Sucre found it necessary to make a retrograde movement from Lombrama towards Uripa, while the enemy advanced upon them, first to Guamanga, VOL. LXVII.

and thence towards Andegueylas. Having arrived at Malara, six leagues from Uripa, Sucre offered the enemy battle on equal terms; but La Serna declined a general action, and continued to advance, still seeking to out-flank the retreating troops. The patriots pursued their retrograde movement on the 3rd of December, and on that evening were attacked, under very disadvantageous circumstances, two leagues to the northward of Malara. They lost, in that affair, their general dépôt, their field pieces, nearly all the baggage of their army, and had about five hundred men killed, wounded, and missing; the loss of the royalists did not exceed thirty.

This disaster threw a damp upon the spirits of Sucre's troops, who continued to fall back, the enemy being always on their left flank, and taking daily many prisoners, and much baggage. Battle was again offered him in Caugillo, but he a second time declined it. Their situation was becoming more desperate every day; the Peruvians had begun to desert; and many of the cavalry, having lost their horses, were obliged to march on foot. In this state they arrived at Quenoa while the enemy posting himself in Guamanguilla, two leagues to the northward, threatened to cut off their further retreat. The aspect of their affairs was now gloomy in the extreme. They could not have existed six days in this position, for want of provisions; and either to have moved on the enemy, or to have countermarched towards Andagueylas or Guamanga, would have been certain ruin. La Serna, in the mean time, confident of success, had sent strong detachments towards Marco, Mayoe, and in other directions, to break up and destroy the bridges [P]

and roads, so as to prevent the escape of a single individual. The Indians of Huanta, Huancabilica, Churcheros, and the neighbouring towns, had all risen, and daily accounts were received of their having assassinated stragglers and attacked small detachments of the patriots. Under these critical circumstances, the royalists, flushed with their superiority, at last determined to make an attack. They brought into the field 7,200 infantry and 1,300 cavalry, whilst the disposable force of the patriots did not exceed 5,627 men, including 1,000 cavalry. The former had a respectable artillery; one solitary four pounder was all that the latter could bring into the field. Sucre's position was in the plain of Ayacucho, extending about two miles in circumference, with a gradual descent in his rear. On the 8th of December, the two armies had some skirmishes. On the 9th, Sucre was attacked by the enemy, who had posted himself the heights in front of the camp. General Valdez, on the van guard, commanded the right of the royal ists, with four field-pieces, four battalions, and two squadrons of hussars: General Monet commanded the centre, with five battalions; and general Villalobos the left, with seven pieces of artillery and four battalions. The remainder of the cavalry, and of the Spanish infantry formed a reserve. To meet the attack, general Cordova advanced on the right, with the second Colombian division; general Lamar, on the left, with the battalions of Peru. The division of general Lara was in reserve. The second division of Colombia had scarcely commenced their fire, when the Spaniards began to lose ground, and confusion became apparent among them. The division of Peru, having met with



a more vigorous resistance from the enemy's vanguard under general Valdez, was reinforced by general Lara, with two battalions of the Colombian guard. The second squadron of the Hussars of Junin, made a successful charge upon a squadron which was posted on the right of general Valdez; while the grenadiers of Colombia dismounted, and charged the Spanish infantry. After an engagement, which lasted about an hour and twenty minutes, the royalists were completely routed. The patriots had 1 general, 8 officers, and 300 men killed; and 6 generals, 34 officers, and 480 men wounded. Of the enemy the viceroy was wounded, and taken prisoner; 6 generals were killed, and 2,600 men were killed or wounded. the same day, the rest of the Spanish army, under general Canterac, capitulated to general Sucre; and by the terms of the capitulation, Canterac, as the person charged with the supreme command of Peru, agreed to surrender to the Liberating Army the whole of the territory which had been possessed by Spain as far as the Desaguadero. Rodil, however, who still occupied the fortress of Callao, refused to submit to the articles of this capitulation; and continued to hold that place for the king of Spain. Bolivar upon principles not very intelligible, pretended to treat his resistance as contrary to public law, and denounced him and his garrison as persons who had forfeited all right to be treated according to the laws of nations.

Olaneta, when informed of the defeat of Ayacucho, ascribed it to the treachery of the Constitutionalists who commanded the Royalists; and from his head quarters at Oruro issued proclamations decla❤

ring his resolution to support the cause of Ferdinand to the last. Sucre, however, advanced; and Olaneta endeavoured to gain some advantage by negotiation. Baffled in this, he exerted himself to the utmost to sustain a sinking cause: but his troops deserted him. In the beginning of March, Sucre established his head-quarters at La Paz, and shortly afterwards occupied Potosi. Olaneta retreated, with about 700 men, towards the province of Salta. In the beginning of April, he was completely defeated, near Tumusla, by a detachment of the Buenos Ayres troops, under the command of colonel Medina Celi. Olaneta himself was one of the first who fell in the engagement. Thus the vinces of Upper Peru were liberated from the Spanish yoke, and left at liberty to choose their own government. It was expected that they would have joined either the Peruvian confederation, or that of the Rio de la Plata: but Upper Peru chose to be independent, as well as free, and declared itself a separate republic.


On the 10th of February, the Constituent Congress assembled at Lima. Bolivar, as dictator of the republic, proceeded with great pomp to the Hall of Assembly, and opened the session with an impressive speech: - He began by telling the deputies of the Peruvian people, that they had assembled under the auspices of the victory of Ayacucho, which had for ever fixed the destinies of the new world. A year had just elapsed, since the Congress had created the dictatorial authority, and within that period the liberating army had healed the wounds of the country, and restored the whole of he Peruvian empire to its primi

tive rights. His own administration had thus been limited to a single campaign, and his labours were terminated, almost before the country had time to arm itself. The tribunals, whose proceedings had been suspended, were again established according to the fundamental law. Reforms had been dictated in finance, and in the collection of the revenue; and though the ravages of war, and the confusion incident to political conflicts, had produced a state of things in which it would require all the wisdom of a beneficent government to restore organization, tranquillity, and freedom, yet Congress ought not to despair. Colombia had held out a helping hand in the difficulties of Peru: its treasure, its marine, its army, were all employed against the common enemy. Chile had given assistance; Mexico, Guatimala, and Buenos Ayres had made offers of service. The diplomatic agent of Colombia, was as yet the only ambassador accredited to the Peruvian government; but consuls had arrived from Great Britain and the United States; and when the result of the contest was known in Europe, he flattered himself that Great Britain would be the first to acknowledge the independence of Peru, and that even Spain would not much longer remain obstinate. "Peru," he added, "will now be freed from the two most terrible scourges of the universe — from war, by the victory of Ayacucho, and from despotism, by my resignation of the dictatorship. Proscribe for ever, I beseech you, that tremendous authority-that authority which was the grave of Roman freedom.” ***« My destiny as a soldier calls me to contribute to the freedom of Upper Peru, and to

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