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fleet was dispersed by a tempest, when, finding themselves deprived of their best means of defence by a want of fire-ships, they retired to Hydra. The Turkish admiral now proceeded unmolested to Navarino, where he landed a reinforcement of 5,000 men. From thence he pursued his course, with seven frigates and many smaller vessels, to Missolonghi, and arriving there about the 10th of July, furnished the Turkish garrisons at the entrance of the gulf of Corinth with the supplies of which they stood greatly in need. The Seraskier now pressed the siege of Missolonghi with increased vigour. The capitan pacha had succeeded, on the 21st of July, in penetrating with small boats into the Lagune; and, on the same day, the fort of Anatolico, an island to the north of Missolonghi, surrendered to the Turks. The garrison of 300 men were made prisoners of war; the inhabitants, to the number of 1,500, received liberty to retire without obstacle into the interior of the country. The besiegers had already succeeded in cutting off the water of Missolonghi, and in erecting several batteries at a small distance from the main works of the place; the ramparts had been much injured by their fire, and a part of the ditches was already filled up. At length, on the 1st of August, the Turkish commanders, apprehensive of the approach of the Greek fleet, ordered a general attack. The works on the land side were assailed in four places, while thirty boats occupied the lake. The Turks, however, were every where repulsed. On the 3rd of August the Greek fleet, consisting of about 25 brigs, made its appearance; and on the 4th and 5th of the month, succeeded in destroying two small

ships of war, as well as all the boats on the Lagune; in relieving Missolonghi, and in forcing the Ottoman fleet to retreat. Some of the Turkish ships retired behind the castles of the gulf of Corinth, while others made sail for the Egaan, whither they were followed by a detachment of the Greek vessels.

At the same time, the troops of Zavellas, Caraiscakis, and other chiefs, to the number of 2,000, who had arrived from the camp at Salona, and were proceeding to Apocuron and Carpenisi, attacked the besiegers in the rear, and opened a momentary communication with the Greek garrison; but the Seraskier was sufficiently strong to repel the sally of the garrison as well as the attack from without. He maintained his position throughout September and October, though with scarcely any result except that of loss to his own troops: expecting that the return of the capitan pacha, who in August had gone to Alexandria, would bring him such reinforcements as would more than supply the diminution of strength which he had sustained by the desertions of the Roumeliots.

The Turco-Egyptian fleet came within sight of Missolonghi on the 18th of November. After remaining a few hours so near the coast of Etolia that the ships could be distinctly scen from the fortress, and from the camp of Redschid Pacha, the whole fleet bore away for the bay of Patras, and anchored there. On the 23rd, three ships entered the port of Patras, discharged their cargoes, consisting of provisions, stores, and ammunition, and landed some troops. During this time, no attempt was made against Missolonghi by the Scraskier from the land side, nor

did it appear that any combined plan of attack had been concerted; but on the 24th, there was a slight skirmish between a party of Turks, who had concealed themselves in one of the trenches, and the troops of the garrison, in which the former suffered some loss. On the 26th, the Grecian fleet, consisting of about 30 sail, under the command of Miaoulis, appeared, and began to engage the Turks, who were awaiting them between Zante, Cephalonia, and Chiarenza; a desultory action ensued, which lasted, with little intermission, two days and nights. The Greeks, as usual, with their small, stout-built merchant brigs, sought by the dexterity of their movements to cut off and destroy isolated vessels, or to direct fire-ships against the enemy's larger men of war; but on this occasion they were not successful. The Turks had the advantage of the wind blowing fresh from the eastward, which, increasing on the 28th to a strong gale, put a stop to further action, and obliged the Greek fleet to retire to sea-ward. The Turks affected to consider this as a victory; and, in fact, as they remained in the Gulf, Missolonghi was in a state of blockade for several days. On the 29th, another naval skirmish took place; partial engagements occurred on the two following days; and, on the 2nd of December, the Greeks compelled the enemy to return for shelter within the Gulf. Shortly afterward, Miaoulis returned to the Archipelago. By this time, the whole of the southern shore of the Gulf of Lepanto had been reduced by Ibrahim, who had placed a garrison of Arabs in Patras.

On the 10th of August, a bold but unsuccessful attempt was made to burn the Turkish fleet in the VOL. LXVII.

port of Alexandria. At four in the afternoon, four small vessels, bearing European flags, appeared in sight of the port, three of which advanced to the opening of the harbour, the fourth remaining tacking off and on. The pilots went out to bring them into the roads. At half-past five, the first entered, and soon afterwards the second. It was then perceived, that the first of these strange vessels was endeavouring to penetrate between the Turkish ships of war; and as some suspicion arose that it might be a fire-ship, it was ordered to stop. The captain, however, still advanced, and would probably have succeeded but for a sudden change of the wind. Then, finding himself discovered, he set fire to his vessel and abandoned it, while the whole crew got into their long-boat, and by dint of rowing escaped from the port. The second, seeing what had happened, tacked about, and followed the boat. Seven cannon shot were fired at this second ship, three others were fired at it by a French man of war, but without doing it any injury. The fire-ship, which was abandoned, was towed to a part of the harbour where its explosion could do no mischief.

In August, the insurrection broke out anew in Candia; and the insurgents obtained possession of the fortresses of Grambouses and Kissamos.

The distress, into which the Grecks were driven by the invasion of Ibrahim Pacha, induced the Senate and Executive body, towards the end of July, to propose to place the country under the protection of Great Britain; and a formal manifesto to that effect [see Public Documents, p. 106*] was issued by them, and transmitted to our government. The offer [0]

was not accepted. It excited, however, the zeal of two private individuals, Messrs. Roche and Washington, to such a degree, that, forgetting that they were not in

vested with any public character, they presented a strong protest against a step which they conceived to be disrespectful to France and America.


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UNITED STATES-Election of a President—Mr. Adams chosen by the House of Representatives-His Inauguration-Discontent in Georgia -Opening of the Session of Congress-MEXICO-Opening of the Constitutional Federal Congress - Speech of the President · Finances-Treaty with Great Britain-Close of the Session of Congress-Extraordinary Session of the Congress-Surrender of two Spanish Ships of War-Surrender of the Castle of Juan de UlloaGUATEMALA Election of a President-Expenditure-COLOMBIAPERU-Military Operations-Battle of Ayacucho-Capitulation of Conterac-Resistance of Callao-Olaneta defeated and slain-Independence of Upper Peru-Conduct of Bolivar-UNITED PROVINCES OF RIO DE LA PLATA-Constituent Congress-Executive AuthorityDisturbances at Cordova, Mendoza, and San Juan-Proceedings at Tarija-Intended General Congress at Panama-Deliberations on that subject-PARAGUAY-CHILE-Plots-Convention of a Constituent Congress-Disturbances-State of the Finances.

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election of a President more than by any other event. The candidates were John Quincy Adams, secretary of state; Mr. Clay, speaker of the house of representatives; Mr. Crawford, secretary of the treasury; and general Jackson, distinguished by the cheap renown of being the only American general, who, in the last war, had been engaged with British troops, and yet had escaped the disgrace of total defeat. The first was supported strenuously by the New England states; the second, by the Western states; the third, by Virginia; and the fourth, by the states of the South. Electors being chosen by the different states, their votes were returned to congress, when the numbers were found to be as follows: For general Jackson, 101; Mr. Adams, 82; Mr. Crawford, 41; Mr. Clay, 37. As no one candidate had obtained the requisite majority of the whole

number of votes, the election, for


American history, devolved upon the house of representatives: who in this case vote by ballot, the delegation of each state having one vote. Mr. Clay, it was understood, transferred his votes to Mr. Adams, upon an agreement, that, if Mr. Adams obtained the presidency, Mr. Clay should be secretary of state; and by this union of strength, Mr. Adams was enabled to triumph. The 9th of February was the day appointed for the determination of the contest: and, contrary to all previous expectation, the election was decided by the first balloting, Mr. Adams having received the votes of thirteen states, general Jackson the votes of seven, and Mr. Crawford the votes of four. The states who voted for Mr. Adams, were-Maine, New Hampshire,

*The former instance in which this happened, was in the election of 1801, when the electoral votes were 73 for Mr.

Jefferson, and 73 for Mr. Burr.

Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, Maryland, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, Louisiana! for general Jackson, New Jersey Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Indiana: for Mr. Crawford, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia.

The division in the different colleges was very unequal. In the New York college, for example, Mr. Adams received 18 votes, Mr. Crawford 14, and general Jackson 2. In the Kentucky college, Mr. Adams received 8, general Jackson 4 in Ohio, Mr. Adams had 10, general Jackson 2, Mr. Crawford 2. In the Maryland college, Mr. Adams received 5 out of 9 votes. In the North Carolina college, Mr. Crawford received 10, general Jackson 2, and Mr. Adams 1 vote.

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As Jackson counted among his partisans the whole rabble of the country, their rage at their defeat was extreme; and it was the more violent, because their candidate had unquestionably a vast majority of the people on his side, and must have succeeded, if the choice had been by the direct votes of the electors.

On the 4th of March, the inauguration of Mr. Adams took place. Preceded by the vice-president Mr. Calhoun, with a number of members of the House of Repre

sentatives, 'followed by the expresident and family, by the judges of the supreme court, in their robes of office, and by the members of the senate, Mr. Adams, in a plain suit of black, advanced to the speaker's chair, and took his seat. The chief justice was placed in front of the clerks' table, having before him another table, on the floor of the hall, on the opposite side of which sat the remaining judges, with their faces towards the chair. Silence having been proclaimed, Mr. Adams rose, and read, with a clear and deliberate articulation, his inaugural address, [see Public Documents p. 109*]. As soon as the last sentence was pronounced, a general plaudit throughout the whole assembly continued for some minutes. The president elect then descended from the chair, and placing himself on the right hand of the judges' table, received from the chief justice a volume of the laws of the United States, from which he read, in a loud and clear voice, the oath of office: the close of which was followed by repeated plaudits, and by the discharge of a salute of artillery. Congratulations poured in from every side; and general Jackson, was among the first of those who took the hand of the president.

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* The following statement purports to exhibit the relative popularity of the two prominent candidates for the Presidency :

Number of votes, as far as ascertained, taken in all the States



Adams. 98,169

Number of electors chosen



Number of electors chosen by the people

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for each

Number of States which have given full electoral votes for each
Number of States which have given a majority of electorial votes

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Number of States by which the second choice of the people has been expressed, by their votes for electors, and other unequivocal evidence

Number of States preferring each




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