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were a low wall without any ditch, flanked on the land-side by some small bastions, and still weaker towards the sea. Opposite to it is the island of Sphacteria, two miles in length and a quarter of a mile broad; and separated from Navarino, at its South Eastern extremity, by a channel six hundred yards wide, which leads into a noble basin six miles in circumference. The northern end of the island is separated by a channel of about a hundred yards in width, from a peninsular, promontory anciently called Coryphasium. A ruined castle of the middle ages, which stands upon the summit of this headland on the site of the ancient Pylus, and is known by the appellation of old Navarino, was occupied by the Greeks; the hill is steep and rocky, and a large lagune on the land side, separated from the sea at either end of the promontory by a narrow strip of land, renders the position naturally very strong. But the castle, having neither been repaired nor armed, was incapable of long defence against a very superior force; and being commanded, at the distance of one thousand yards, by the highest point of Sphacteria, there remained little hope to the Greeks of preserving either of their posts at Navarino, unless, by the assistance of their ships, they could retain possession of the island.

By the middle of April, Conduriottis had succeeded in assembling about 6,000 men at Cremidi. But after several desultory actions with small bodies of the Greeks, Ibrahim, on the 19th of April, attacked, and completely defeated in their position, all the troops which the president had been able to collect. To take Sphacteria, was the next object of the

Pacha; but it was not until the return of his ships from Suda in Candia, whither they had gone in order to transport a third division of land forces, that he could attempt to put this part of his design into execution.

On Sunday the 1st of May, the Egyptian fleet, amounting, transports included, to 65 or 70 sail, came out of the port of Suda, where it had been for some days closely watched by a Greek squadron of 29 sail, under Miaoulis. The latter immediately endeavoured to oppose their progress, but the light breezes were unpropitious to his purpose. There was a distant cannonade kept up for some time with little or no effect, and two fireships were sent off by the Greeks without success. A third was more fortunate. The rigging of a large frigate was seriously injured, and a large portion of her crew, who leaped overboard in their terror, were either taken prisoners, or perished in the waters. The Greeks having failed in their principal object, the Egyptian fleet succeeded in reaching Modon, whence 46 ships, followed by Miaoulis, proceeded to cruise off Navarino. In the harbour of Navarino there was then only one Greek vessel, the brig Mars, commanded by the Hydriote captain Tsammados. It was engaged in provisioning the fortress and in covering the landing of the water, which was brought in boats from the coast of the modern province of Arcadia. Miaoulis, shortly after his arrival, sent in seven vessels, of which Tsammados was to take the command, and to proceed with them to reinforce the squadron of five ships which remained off Patras. On Sunday, the 8th of May, the squadron of Miaoulis

reduced by the detachment abovementioned to twenty-two vessels, was at a considerable distance towards Zante: the Egyptian fleet, in numbers forty-six, were off the island of Sphacteria; Tsammados's eight vessels were inside the harbour. The neck of land, formed by a swamp and the sea, which connects old Navarino with the main land, as also the plain at its extremity, were occupied by Ibrahim Pacha in person, with all his cavalry. The island was occupied by about 300 irregular Greek soldiers, and 200 sailors, who had been sent on shore from the ships. A battery of two small guns, wrought by a party of sailors, defended the landing place towards the sea; three others, also of small size, were placed higher up among the rocks; and a battery of three pieces of heavy artillery at the southern end of the island, defended the only practicable entrance into the harbour. At 10 o'clock in the morning (of Sunday, the 8th), the Turkish fleet was observed standing in towards the shore. At noon they were ranged along the whole length of the island, keeping up a tremendous fire to cover the landing of the boats; and at the same time, the besiegers on the main land feigned to commence a general attack on the fort.

In a very short time a number of troops, estimated at from two to three thousand, disciplined in the European fashion, dressed in red uniforms, and armed with muskets and bayonets, succeeded in forcing their way into the island. The sailors at the lower battery were surrounded and destroyed to a man; and in the space of about an hour, the enemy had traversed the whole island victoriously from end to end. Of the 500 men

who defended it, not quite 150 escaped. Among the slain were captain Tsammados; and count Santa Rosa, who acted a conspicuous part in the revolution of Piedmont. The slaughter would not have been so great, had the vessels in the harbour exerted themselves to save the fugitives, or even left their boats on shore so as to facilitate their escape. But as soon as the Turks had made good their landing on the island, the Turkish fleet also began to extend itself for the purpose of blockading the mouth of the bay. Upon this, captain Badouri, a Hydriote, gave the signal of flight; six others followed his example. Fifty or a hundred musket shots were fired after them in vain rage by the victims on the shore.

The only vessel which remained was the Mars, belonging to captain Tsammados. After waiting for her captain, till the crew were informed of his death, and having taken on board prince Mavrocordato and the governor of old Navarino, this small vessel, a brig of only 18 guns, prepared to force her way through the fleet of the enemy. The Turkish squadron had by this time extended itself nearly across the mouth of the harbour, and the battery commanding the passage was in the hands of the enemy. officer on board the Mars, addressed the men from the quarter deck, declaring that they should not fall alive into the hands of the barbarians; for that, in case of necessity, he would set fire to the powder magazine, and involve both in one common destruction. The men received this announcement with loud cheers. The breeze being light, for three successive hours, the brig remained almost in the middle of the Turkish fleet, during


which time she exchanged broadsides with several frigates, besides many corvettes and brigs, none of which was under her own force. Considerably damaged in her hull and rigging, but with a loss of only two men killed, and eight or ten wounded, she at last escaped.

On the evening of the 8th, old Navarino remained without commander, without water and provisions, and with only twenty barrels of powder. On the morning of the 10th, the garrison capitulated, on terms which the Pacha faithfully observed.

At noon two brigantines, in spite of the fire of Navarino, entered the harbour, and were followed the next day by eleven frigates and four more brigantines, which anchored within pistol shot of the walls of the city. They immediately sent a Greek prisoner on shore with a message; but he was not received, and the fleet having anchored, immediately commenced a brisk fire. On the morning of the 12th, the enemy renewed the offer of allowing the garrison to retire without their arms, and by land. This proposal was also rejected, and the fire was continued. It was also continued on the 13th and 14th, interrupted only by proposals, which were rejected like the rest. In the mean time, the Egyptians had raised four new batteries; and by the morning of the 15th, there were forty-six pieces of cannon and ten mortars directed against the city on the land side. capable of resisting a fire so disproportioned to the strength of the place, it only remained for the Greeks to endeavour to gain time, in the hope of succour either by sea or land; and it was at length agreed to come to terms, on condition that the firing should first


ccase. A whole week passed in negotiations, purposely prolonged by the Greeks; and the garrison finally marched out on the 23rd, leaving water in the place for four days supply only, and bread for ten. The conditions of the surrender were, that the Greeks should march out without arms, and be embarked in neutral vessels, to be conducted to Calamata, under the escort of two galliots; one Austrian, the Arethusa, captain Bandiera; the other English, the Amaranth, captain Bezar. The capitulation was observed strictly by the Pacha; except only that Satracco, and the son of Petro Bey, Georgio Mauromicali, were detained prisoners by him, on the pretext that the Greeks had detained two Pachas after the capitulation of Navoli. The Pacha promised to give taem up, as soon as the two Pachas should be restored to him.

The garrison of Navarino, after the capture of Sphacteria had been reduced to about 900 men from losses in killed, wounded, and desertion; exclusive of 100 Roumeliots, who set out to march to Missolonghi; of these 900, 300 were Mainotes, 300 Cranidiotes and the rest Roumeliots, with the exception of fifty Cephalonians. The cannon of the place was served by Roumeliots and Cephalonians, and by a company of artillery, which was reduced at the end of the siege to only thirty men.

After the capture of Sphacteria, six ships of war and about thirty transports, part of the Egyptian fleet, were followed by Miaoulis into the harbour of Modon, where more than half of them were destroyed by the Greek fire ships. When Navarino capitulated, the Morea had already been abandoned by the troops of northern

Greece; for as soon as they heard of the arrival of Redschid Pacha as Seraskier in Epirus, and of his approach with a large force to Missolonghi, it became impossible, for the toan and Ætolian chiefs, even had they been so inclined, to keep their followers from proceeding to the defence of their own mountains.

During all this time, Colocotroni, with several of the chiefs of the Morea, as already related, remained state prisoners in the convent at Hydra; though some of the provinces of the Morea had demanded his release; and he himself had twice besought the government to allow him to engage the enemy, offering his two sons as hostages. Two members of the government were in favour of his release, and two against it. The decision was therefore suspended, till the arrival of the president, whose opinion was to be adopted. It was not long before he arrived at Napoli di Romania, as every expedient to collect an army had failed. His arrival was the signal for a general cabal: Coletti, who had long been averse to Co ocotroni, opposed his release; the president, indignant against Coletti, whom he considered as having been instrumental in causing the Roumeliot troops to abandon the camp at Cremidi, wished to expel that individual from the government: while Colocotroni's party, who wished to exalt their chief, imputed all the misfortunes of the campaign to the president's want of skill, and earnestly desired the expulsion of his counsellor Mavrocordato. Finally, the president, perceiving that he should require support in his government against his principal enemy Colocotroni, gave up all thoughts of dismissing

Coletti, and left it to the wisdom of the legislative senate to decide on Colocotroni's fate. Abandoned, as they now were by the troops of northern Greece, that body had no other resource than to recall the chief, in whom alone the Moreote troops had confidence. An amnesty was therefore published; and Colocotroni, affecting complete oblivion of the past, proceeded to collect the forces of the peninsula, in order to oppose the advance of the Egyptians.

In the beginning of June a detachment of Ibrahim's army defeated a body of Greeks at Aghia on the mountain which overhangs the town of Arkadhia (the ancient Cyparessus); and about the same time the Pacha himself occupied Kalamata. From Kalamata he soon began his march into the interior. After having sustained some loss from the troops of Colocotroni in crossing the mountain now called Makriplaghi, which separates the plain of Messene from the valley of Megalopolis or the upper Alpheius, he occupied, on the 20th of June, the half demolished town of Tripolitza, and appeared before Napoli di Romania within one month after the capture of Navarino. A division of his army attacked the great outposts at the mills of Napoli on the 25th of June, but without success; although the Greeks under Demetrius Ypsilanti (who for some time before had been living retired from affairs at Tripolitza) had, in no part of the action, more than a few hundred men, supported by the fire of some small armed vessels anchored near the shore. Having failed in his prin-. cipal design, that of surprising Nauplia, or of intimidating it into term of capitulation, Ibrahim re

treated; and endeavoured next to open a passage to Patras; but the mountainous districts of Arcadia and Achaia, which are interposed between that city and the plains of Mantineia and Argos, were favourable to such irregular troops as the militia of Greece; and though these were unable, as well from their inferior numbers as from their want of discipline, to face the Egyptians in a general action, or to interrupt the pasha's communications with the Messenian ports; yet Ibrahim, on his part, had suffered considerable loss from sickness as well as from the sword, and was able only to overrun the plains, to destroy the cultivation, which, during three years freedom from Turkish plunder, had begun to grow up, and to reduce all the most fertile parts of the country to more than their former desolation.

About the same time that the Egyptian army occupied Messenia, the Turks moved from Epirus and Thessaly upon the shores of the Corinthian gulf: a Turkish division, making a rapid movement from Zituni, seized upon Salona, and in the end of April the Seraskier Redschid Pacha appeared before Missolonghi. But he came quite unprovided with heavy artillery; the Ottoman fortresses at the entrance of the gulf were unable to supply him to any great extent, and the Greeks were successful in interrupting his communications with Salona and with Thessaly, through the mountains of Locris and Ætolia. Contracting his plan, therefore, the Seraskier recalled into Thessaly the troops which had entered Boeotia for the purpose of supporting the operations of the Pacha of Egripo; and, reinforcing himself from Larissa, he directed

all his means to the blockade of Missolonghi, and to the protection of his position before that place, until the arrival of the fleet of the capitan Pacha should enable him to commence more active operations. That fleet was to bring him materials for the siege, to furnish boats for attacking the fortress on the side of the lagune, and to secure his communication with Patras from the interruption to which it was liable whenever the Greek cruizers made their appear


The Turkish admiral sailed from the Dardanelles in the end of May; about the first of June he was met in the channel of Cavo Doro, by the Hydriote Sakhturi, who destroyed with his fire-ships three Turkish men of war and several transports; another corvette was run ashore by the crew, and burned in the island of Syra. These vessels contained a large proportion of the stores intended for the siege of Missolonghi. A few days afterwards, the captain Pacha entered Suda, where he joined the Egyptian fleet which had lately returned from Navarino. He was quickly followed thither by the joint forces of Miaoulis and Sakhturi, amounting to about 70 sail. On the 14th, two days after their arrival, these gallant officers attacked a division of the Ottoman fleet which remained in the outer harbour of Suda, and at the expense of three fire-ships, destroyed a corvette with its equipage. They were prevented from any further success, not so much by the strength or vigilant fears of the enemy, as by the narrowness of the entrance into the inner bay of Suda, and by the fortified island which protects it.

A few days afterwards, the Greek

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