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death of his father, to unite the two crowns on his own head.

The relations between Brazil and some of the neighbouring independent states, became of a very delicate and perplexing kind. Early in the year, the independent troops of Peru, having taken possession of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, called upon don Sebastian Ramos, governor of the province of Chiquitos, who still adhered to the king of Spain, to join their standard. He refused to do so, and resolved to seek the protection of the imperial arms. With this view, he sent his aide-de-camp D. Jose Maria de Velasco to the governor of the adjacent Brazilian province, Matto Grosso, with a proposal to unite the province of Chiquitos with the empire of Brazil. This proposal the governor of Matto Grosso, by the advice of the provisional authorities, accepted in the month of April; and he immediately sent a detachment of troops into Chiquitos, in order to prevent the advance of the patriots. These proceedings threatened to involve the emperor in a war with Peru and Colombia. But the sense of danger overcame his ambition; and in August, he, by an official document, disavowed the measures which had been taken by the provincial authorities. "Though the governors," said his majesty in this instrument, "hoped, perhaps, by this means better to provide for the defence of the capital of Matto Grosso, and actuated, by an indiscreet zeal, thought to do a service to his majesty and to the empire by the acquisition of an adjacent country, in order thereby to support the exertions of the royalists in America; yet it should have occurred to the provisional government, that the particular VOL LXVII.

interest of a nation is not a sufficient or honourable reason for aggrandizing itself at the expense of the fidelity of people who are led to make such a sacrifice only by calamities, which, though serious, are, however, transitory. Besides, the government is quite incompetent to make a practical decision on the questions which divide the liberals and the royalists in Spanish America, and should not have resolved on such measures. Therefore, his majesty the emperor commands the minister of state for foreign affairs to signify his surprise to the government at the resolution which it took, not only to accept the union of the province of Chiquitos, but to make the Brazilian troops pass the frontier of the empire to protect it; and the more so, as, if his majesty had been previously consulted, as he ought to have been, he never would have given his consent to a step so contrary to the generous and liberal sentiments which guide the policy of his cabinet, and to his intention of not interfering in the present contest between the inhabitants of Spanish America and the mother country."

In adopting this prudent resolu tion, his majesty was probably influenced not a little, by the awkward circumstances in which he was then placed, with respect to the government of Buenos Ayres. Though general Lecor, with upwards of 2,000 troops, supported by a small naval squadron, still held Monte Video and the Banda Oriental as a dependency of Brazil, the inhabitants of that province were known to be exceedingly averse to the Brazilian dominion, and to be anxious to be united, as they formerly were, under the [N]

same government with the provinces of the Rio de la Plata. Availing himself of this disposition, Fructuoso Rivera, who had once been in the service of Artigas, but when the fortunes of that chieftain began to decline, had entered the Brazilian service as colonel, and was afterwards promoted to the rank of brigadier and decorated with orders of distinction, raised the standard of revolt on the 27th of April, and soon collected such a force as enabled him to take Maldonado, and gave him the command of a great part of the country. In the beginning of May, a force of about 300 men, under the command of Juan Antonio Lavalleja, collected and equipped (it would appear) by the zeal of individuals, and without the avowed support of the government, set out from Buenos Ayres; and, landing on the eastern side of the river on the 6th of May, made 218 Brazilian cavalry prisoners, together with eleven officers, two lieutenant colonels, and one colonel. Lavalleja assumed the supreme military command; and, in conjunction with Rivera, liberated nearly the whole of the Banda Oriental from the Brazilian yoke. Colonia and Monte Video were the only points which Lecor was able to hold; and he trembled for the safety of both. Even the latter, where he himself commanded, was invested by part of the independent troops.

Under these circumstances, a provisional government was established in the Banda Oriental, which held its first sitting on the 14th of June. The deputies from the different districts chose don Manuel Calleros for their president, and Francisco Oranjo, secretary. Lavalleja appeared before them, and

was confirmed in the command in chief of the army. A commission of finance was established; and duties on goods exported and imported, were ordered to be levied. The commander-in-chief stated to the government, that he depended for arms, ammunition, and other implements of war, not only on the resources of the country, but on his credit and the influence of his friends in Buenos Ayres. The most important proceeding of this government was a declaration, that the acts which purported to incorporate the province with Brazil were null, and that their general and uniform desire had been to remain in union with the provinces of Rio de la Plata. This declaration was communicated to the congress of Buenos Ayres; accompanied by a request that they might be received as a member of the republic. Such an application was not likely to be rejected. Accordingly, the congress, by an act passed on the 25th of October, acknowledged the independence of the Banda Oriental; declared the nullity of those acts which affected to unite it with Brazil; and bound themselves to defend and provide for its safety, and to do every thing in their power to accelerate the evacuation of it by the troops of his Brazilian majesty. At the same time, they added, that, preserving the same spirit of moderation and of justice which had always directed their councils, it was their wish not to go to war, if the restitution of the whole of the province could be effected amicably.*

See the note from the minister for

foreign affairs of the provinces of the

Rio de la Plata, to the Brazilian minister for foreign affairs-Public Documents, p. 105.

On the 17th of May, the news of Rivera's revolt was received at Rio de Janeiro; and on the 21st of the same month, an expedition sailed with a reinforcement of about 1,500 men for the garrison of Monte Video. Though this prompt aid saved Monte Video from immediated anger, it did not suffice to re-establish the authority of don Pedro. In the course of July and August, fortune appears uniformly to have favoured the cause of the Independents. In trifling skirmishes during that period, the Brazilians lost about 700 horses, and had about 50 officers and soldiers killed or wounded. The ranks of the Imperialists were thinned likewise by desertion. The force of the Independents, on the contrary, was increasing in numbers and improving in discipline. The provisional government, which had established its seat in the town of Florida, decreed the formation of a patriotic legion, and made other arrangements for carrying on the war. Colonia was watched by about 600 men, commanded by don Ignacio Oribe. On the 15th of August the Imperialists made a sortie, but were driven back with the loss of nine men killed and ten wounded. Rivera had been employed chiefly in the neighbourhood of the Rio Negro. In the beginning of September, his van-guard received a check, but apparently not of much consequence. On the 24th of September, at day-break, he took, with 250 men, the Rincon de las Gallinas, where the enemy had a considerable number of horses, and a small guard, all of whom, except such as escaped on board the ships of war, were put to the sword. At eight o'clock, news was brought that the Imperial colonel, Geronimo Gonzales Jardin, was advancing

with at least 700 men. Rivera, collecting all his men, waited for the enemy half a league from the Rio Negro. The moment the Imperialists appeared, they were attacked; the rout was complete, and they were pursued above four leagues: they left on the field more than 100 killed, including 16officers, and above 300 were made prisoners. The remainder of the enemy's forces fled into the mountains; and not above 100 of them finally escaped.

Colonel Ventus Manuel, with 2,000 men principally cavalry, having left Monte Video, were, on the 12th of October, encountered on the banks of the Sarandi, by an equal force under Lavalleja. The engagement was short but decisive. The result of it was, that more than 400 of the Imperialists were left dead on the field of battle; 470 were taken prisoners, together with 50 officers; without including the wounded and the stragglers. More than 2,000 stand of arms, ten ammunition-waggons, and all their baggage, fell into the hands of Lavalleja. His loss was only one officer killed, and 30 wounded: and 30 soldiers killed, and 70 wounded. On the following day, a division of the enemy, commanded by don Antonio Jose Oliviera, surrendered on capitulation, at the pass of Perdido, to adjutant don Santos Aguilar, and 27 men under his command.

These events seemed to portend that Monte Video could not but fall shortly; especially as the Banda Oriental had been admitted a member of the republic of Rio de la Plata, and would thenceforth be aided by the whole strength of the commonwealth. The determination of the congress to expel the Imperialists from the BandaOriental was formally announced to the

Brazilian minister in the beginning of November; and it was clear that don Pedro could no longer retain Monte Video, without involving himself in a war with the new republic. From this war he did not seem disposed to shrink. Prepara

tions were made by him for carrying on hostilities vigorously and in the mean time his naval squadron occupied the river Plata, and estabished a blockade, which was duly notified to Great Britain and the other powers.

CHAP. XIII.

ITALY.-Papal States-Censorship-Carbonari-Naples-New Convention concerning the Army of Occupation-Miraculous Madonnas THE IONIAN ISLANDS: Ecclesiastical Establishment-Abolition of feudal Tenures-TURKEY-Foreign Relations Internal Disturbances-GREECE-Suppression of Colocotroni's Insurrection-Blockade of Patras-Preparations of the Turks-Disembarkations of the Egyptians-Siege of Navarino-Sphacteria taken-Old Navarino surrenders-Capitulation of Navarino-Naval success-Recall of Colocotroni-Military Operations in the Morea-Operations of Redschid Pacha-Naval Skirmishes-Siege of Missolonghi-Naval Operations-Unsuccessful attempt to burn the Turkish Fleet in the Port of Alexandria-Insurrection in Candia-Proposal of the Greeks to place themselves under the Protection of Great Britain.

N Italy all was tranquil. The

its usual routine; and in the Papal states, the administration of Leo 12th, though not distinguished by any wondrous excess of bigotry, was, upon the whole, less liberal than that of his predecessor. Asyums were instituted for assassins in Ostia, and three other unhealthy towns. On the 18th of August, the law regulating the censorship of the press was re-modelled. According to the new scheme, a council of revision, consisting of four members of each of the five colleges of the university, was formed, for the purpose of examining all works intended to be printed, and of ascertaining that they contained nothing which might lead to disputes with a foreign government. This council was also to revise all public inscriptions. All printers and booksellers were to procure, within a month's time, licences to continue their business, and were annually to deliver in a list of the prohibited books which they might have in

their possession. Prohibited books

libraries, the inspectors of which were to have a part of the fines imposed on the transgressors of the law. No private presses were to be allowed.

Considerable numbers of persons were arrested at Rome on the charge of Carbonarism; and two individuals were executed for an atrocious murder, which seems to have been the result of political cabals [See Chronicle, p. 160]. These intrigues, however, do not appear to have been of such a nature as to excite any serious alarm.

The health of the Pope was throughout the greater part of the year in a very infirm, and sometimes in an alarming state.

Ferdinand, king of Naples, died of apoplexy on the 4th of January; and was succeeded by his son. A treaty was entered into between the new sovereign and the emperor of Austria, for the immediate di

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