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feel in ourselves, or to impress on our posterity, that we owe our present situation, our existence as a nation, free and independent, to the aid given us by commerce, from England, America, and Germany." That the sentiments, expressed in these words, was not confined to a single breast, subsequent events clearly showed. A few weeks afterwards, the president with his staff, and a considerable force, suddenly set off for Cape Haytien, in consequence of intelligence, secretly conveyed, that an alarming insurrection was about to break out in that place. The decisive measures taken by Boyer, checked the spirit of revolt, for the mean time, and restored the place to tranquillity. He soon returned to Port-au-Prince, bringing back with him general Profete, and another leader of the meditated revolt, in chains, together with two of their aides-de-camp, and several other officers. General Touissant, brother in law of the late king Christophe, who was likewise implicated in the conspiracy, blew out his own brains.

At nearly the same time with the date of the king of France's ordinance, a decree was passed by the Haytian government, increasing the import duty on English manufactured goods from 7 to 12 per cent, and so depriving the English merchants of that preference which had previously been granted to them over all other nations. The motive assigned for this decree, when it was first promulgated, was the indignation of

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CHAP. X.

NETHERLANDS-Inundations-Treaties-Conclusion of the Session of the States-General-Means taken for the Improvement of Education, and especially of the Education of the Clergy-Violent Opposition of the Archbishop of Mechlin and many of the Catholic Clergy-Liberality of the Catholic Clergy of the Grand-Duchy of LuxemburgNew Duties imposed by France on Articles imported from the Netherlands-Opening of the new Session of the States-General-Financial Embarrassments of the Dutch possessions in India-Insurrection in Java-SWEDEN-Germany-Prussia-Wirtemberg-BavariaGrand Duchy of Baden-Switzerland-Austria; Hungarian DietPoland-RUSSIA-Illness of the Emperor Alexander: his Death: his Character: effects of the Intelligence of that Event-Oath of Allegiance taken to Constantine: his Renunciation of the Throne: his adherence to that Renunciation-Accession of Nicholas-Military Insurrection in St. Petersburg-Alleged Conspiracy-Revolt of Mouravieff Apostol -Count Nesselrode's Note to the Foreign Ministers.

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On the 5th of March, the President of the Second Chamber informed the assembly that his Majesty had concluded two treaties relative to the demarcation of the frontiers one with the king of France, the other with the king of Great Britain, as king of Hanover. On the following day, a royal message was read, announcing that the Minister of the Interior was commissioned to close the session of the Statesgeneral. The two chambers were then united in the usual manner, and the Minister of the Interior delivered the following speech.

"High and Mighty Lords, "The labours of the session, which I come to close in the King's name, have not been less important than, those of the preceding sessions. The civil code being nearly terminated, you will be able soon to proceed to the examination of the other codes. An amelioration of great importance, the draining of a vast tract of land, has obtained for you the gratitude of the country, which has so long wished, but hardly dared to hope for it.

"The King intended to lay before you a law relative to the communal guards, but it has become the subject of fresh observations, which have delayed it. His Majesty hopes that this law, which is still wanting to complete the execution of the fundamental law, will be passed in the next session. His Majesty has withdrawn the three projects of law intended to

modify some taxes: it is with regret that he sees the moment delayed, when the wish for a better proportion in the distribution of the burdens being fulfilled, will reconcile the interest of the subject with that of the Exchequer. Meantime, till this affair can be again submitted to your consideration, the King will make use of the means offered by the existing laws to attain as far as possible the end he proposed, and to fulfil the hopes which he had conceived.

"The last part of your session has been marked by misfortunes a deplorable disaster has desolated several provinces. The nation has shewn itself, as it always has done on such occasions, patient, courageously and eminently charitable. The government has endeavoured to fulfil its duties; you have nobly seconded it; and from this threefold union of sentiment and care, will result, with the aid of Divine Providence, the prompt and entire reparation of all the disasters, and the relief or alleviation of all the misfortunes that have been occasioned.

"He indulges the hope that, on the opening of the next session he will be able to assure you, that in this respect there remains nothing for the government to perform, or

the nation to desire.”

The difference of religious opinion, which existed in the two divisions of the kingdom of the Netherlands, had been felt to be so serious an inconvenience, that the attention of the government had been strongly drawn to a circumstance which was likely to increase the mischief. That circumstance was the education of the clergy, and of many of the children of Catholics in foreign seminaries, where every endeavour was used to imbue them

with the spirit of the most fiery bigotry, or in such provincial establishments for education within the limits of the Low-countries as were entirely under the influence of the more narrow-minded portion of the priesthood. To correct these evils, decrees, were published, on the 14th of June, suppressing some of the existing, colleges, erecting a new college at Louvain, and providing more ample means of instruction in the established universities.

In furtherance of the same object, another decree was issued on the 14th of August, which contained the following articles:

1st. No young Belgians who, after the first of October next, shall have studied the "humanities” out of the kingdom, shall be admitted in any of our Universities into the Philosophical College, instituted by our decree of the 14th of June last.

2nd. Those who are to be examined by the Faculty of Letters, before they can be admitted as students, shall first of all produce certificates from their professors that they have received "from those professors, for some years without interruption, instructions in the ancient languages and the principles of the sciences."

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3rd. Those young Belgians, who, after the first of October next, shall have studied the "humanities out of the kingdom, or who shall have pursued their academical studies out of the kingdom, shall not be appointed by us to any employments, or admitted to exercise any ecclesiastical functions.

These measures produced great dissatisfaction among the more bigotted portion of the clergy; who, headed by the archbishop of Mechlin, and encouraged by the

approbation of the pope and the sympathy of France, protested loudly against a course of proceeding, which they denounced as "in direct opposition (to quote the words of the archbishop himself) "to the interests of our holy religion to the orders of the council of Trent, concerning the formation of a virtuous, regular, and orthodox college-to the rights belong ing, of divine right, to the epis

* In consequence of the discussions concerning the Philosophical college erected for the clergy, the following letter was sent by the court of Rome to the archbishop of Mechlin :

"My Lord, I find it my duty to give you an account of the examination made by order of the Holy Father, of the two decrees of the Belgian government, of the 14th of June last, and I have heard with satisfaction that all the heads of the dioceses have united with the arch bishop of Mechlin in making a protesta tion against these decrees, and that M.

Chamberlane has followed the same
course with the clergy of Holland, The
sovereign pontiff has, on his part, or-
dered a strong representation to be
made to the government of the king of
the Netherlands, in a note put into the
hands of M. Reinhold, envoy at the

court of Rome. His holiness will judge
hereafter, according to circumstances,
what it is proper to do; in the mean
time, he is of opinion, that all the
ordinaries ought to act with one common
accord, and remain quite passive, should
the Belgian government proceed to the
execution of its orders. His holiness,
whose heart has been filled by the most
lively regret by these two decrees, is
convinced that the general protestation
will be worthy of the heads of the dio-
ceses from whom it emanates, and that
it will be modelled on that made by the
ordinates of Belgian in 1787, against
the general seminary erected by the
emperor Joseph at Louvain, and that
they will not have lost sight of the de-
claration made by the king of the
Netherlands in July, 1815, in virtue of
which he guaranteed the Catholic reli-
gion its dignity and security."
[By order] (Signed)

"R. MASIO."

were not

copacy-to the free exercise of the
Catholic religion, and the protec-
tion guaranteed to it by the fun-
damental law-and finally, to the
several declarations and promises
made to us by his majesty." These
sentiments, however,
the Ca-
universal, even among
tholics of the kingdom. In the
grand duchy of Luxemburg, in
particular, the Catholic clergy pre-
sented an address to the king,
breathing a most liberal and en-
"The decree of
lightened spirit.
the 14th of June," says this ad-
dress, "has fulfilled the hopes of
those Catholic priests, who are sin-
cerely attached to the doctrines of
their holy religion. Those of the
grand duchy, who present their re-
spectful homage, see in it a new
cause of prosperity to the Catholic
church. In all civilized states, in-
struction spreads with astonishing
rapidity. Letters, sciences and
arts become accessible to all
classes; and shall that which by
its essence, is called to diffuse
the knowledge most necessary to
the human race remain behind?
Such an order of things is evi-
dently subversive of the spiritual
and temporal welfare of man.”
The whole of the address was
written in the same spirit of sub-
mission to government and respect
for the system of public instruction.
The ultra journals of Paris cen-
sured it as deficient in reverence
for episcopal authority and in sub-
mission to the see of Rome.

Great complaints were made of an ordinance, issued by the king of France, about the beginning of July, by which additional duties were imposed on several productions of Flemish industry, and especially on the importation of linen. Petitions were immediately presented to the government, call

ing upon it to make reprisals, by adopting similar measures against

France.

Moluccas, Sumatra, Celebes, and elsewhere, rendered military armaments necessary. To these causes were added the failure of the crops, and contagious diseases, which had carried off several thousands of the natives, so that many tracts of land remained uncultivated.

Till 1824, the distress was ascribed in India to temporary causes. Under this idea, every thing was conducted on a large scale, and even considerable domains, alienated in former years, were re-pur

On the 17th of October, the new session of the States-general commenced. It was opened by the king in person, accompanied by the crown prince and prince Frederick. In the speech which his majesty delivered on that occasion, after alluding to the marriage of his second son with a princess of Prussia, which had been solemn ized since the close of the last session, he gave a very favourable ac-chased; but, in that year, a concount of the state of the kingdom, and touched lightly upon the various branches of the administration, in which improvements had been made, or were making [see Public Documents p. 89*].

The most important measure, which was brought before theStatesgeneral, was the project of a law for providing for the financial distresses of the East-Indian possessions of the Netherlands, by a loan to the amount of 20,000,000 of florins. For the payment of the interest and for the redemption of the principal, a sum of 1,400,000 florins was to be annually set apart for the colonial service, commencing from the 1st of January, 1826, and this annual sum of 1,400,000 florins was to be guaranteed, as far as necessary, by the state, for the period of thirty years.

The causes of the financial embarrassments of the Indian government were stated to be, the incautious issue of paper-currency, the payment of large sums for goods taken by agreement from the British government, the loss of ships laden with produce, &c., the great expenses incurred by the erection of military works, and the maintenance of a colonial marine; and the serious disturbances in the

siderable fall in the price of coffee taking place, reduced at once the large stock in the hands of government to one half of its value, so that a great embarrassment ensued, which rendered it necessary to issue paper bearing 9 per cent interest.

These circumstances induced the government in October, 1824, to make retrenchments; and it was at the same time resolved to negociate a loan in Bengal. The latter project, however, was rejected by the government at home, from an apprehension that one effect of it would be, to cause the produce of the Dutch possessions to be remitted to foreign merchants.

The scheme of raising a loan in Bengal being rejected, the only alternative was, to procure assistance from the mother country; and though her guarantee was required only for the satisfaction of the Indies, yet the government stated that they confidently expected that the Indian treasury would be able to provide the annual sum of 1,400,000 florins for the payment of interest and capital. From 1817 to 1824, the revenues amounted to about 152 millions of florins, and the expenditure to about 151 millions. The

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