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THE HISTORY

THE

ANNUAL REGISTER,

FOR THE YEAR

1825.

THE

HISTORY OF EUROPE

CHAP. I.

Catholic Association-Prosperous state of Industry and CommerceRecognition of Mexico, Colombia, and Buenos Ayres-Opening of the Session of Parliament-King's Speech-Discussion in the House of Lords on the Address-Speeches of Lords Dudley and Ward, Gort, Lansdowne, Liverpool, Donoughmore, Roden, and Clifden-Discussion in the House of Commons on the Address: Lord F. L. Gower, Mr. Alderman Thompson-Speech of Mr. Brougham; Mr. Canning's Answer to him-Discussion on the report of the Address.

TH

HOSE districts of Ireland which had previously been in the most disturbed state, were very tranquil during the winter; and of this tranquillity the Catholic Association, whether with or without truth, held forth its own influence as the cause. That body continued the course of proceeding which we have mentioned in our former volume; levying large sums under the name of voluntary conVOL. LXVII.

tributions, and assuming to be the
representatives and protectors of the
Catholic population. Their con-
duct, and the violence of the lan-
guage used at their meetings,
attracted the notice of the govern-
ment; and it was understood, that,
in the ensuing session of parlia-
ment, steps would be taken to
check their excesses.
hension of this, instead of inspir-
ing them with moderation, served
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The appre

only to incite them to more furious rhodomontade. The language which the printed reports of their proceedings imputed to O'Connell, went on one occasion to such a

length, that the attorney-general deemed it proper to hold that gentleman to bail. An indictment was subsequently preferred against him for the words which he had used, but the grand jury did not find the bill.

Except in this one point, the political horizon was unclouded. Nearly all property had risen greatly in pecuniary value, and every branch of internal industry was thriving. Agricultural distress had disappeared; the persons employed in the cotton and woollen manufactures were in full employment; the various departments of the iron trade were flourishing; on all sides new buildings were in the progress of erection; and money was so abundant, that men of enterprise, though without capital, found no difficulty in commanding funds for any plausible undertaking. This substantial and solid prosperity was stimulated to an additional extent, and was in appearance still further magnified, by the operation of the many jointstock companies which had sprung into sudden existence in the former year. Some of these had put in motion a considerable quantity of industry, and increased the demand for various articles; and all of them, at their commencement, and for some time afterwards, tended to throw a certain sum of money into more active circulation, and to multiply the transfers of property from one hand to another. As these speculations still retained their popularity, the apparent prosperity arising from their artificial stimulus presented an imposing

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Some of these projects derived fresh popularity, and the general satisfaction with the measures of the government was much increased, by an important step which was taken in fixing the foreign relations of the country.

Mr. Canning made a formal communication to the foreign ministers accredited to our court, in which he stated "That in consequence of the repeated failures of the applications of his majesty's government to the court of Spain, relative to the recognition of the Independent States of South America, his majesty has come to a determination to appoint chargés des affaires to the States of Colombia, Mexico, and Buenos Ayres;

and to enter into treaties of com

merce with those respective States on the basis of the recognition of

General United Coal Company. Irish Investment and Equitable Loan Bank.

Equitable Investment Company. Metropolitan Investment Society. Surrey, Sussex, and Hants Rail-road Company,

Taunton Grand Western Rail-road Company.

Metropolitan Banking Company.
Sea and Inland Coal Company.
General Steam Navigation Company.
Bermondsey Dock Company.
Metropolitan Alderney Dairy Com-

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ment, which specifies the amount of the instalments paid on each share in five of the principal mining companies, and the market prices of these shares, on the 10th of December, 1824, and the 11th of January respectively:—

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their Independence." This measure, beneficial and popular in itself, was the more acceptable, because it was justly deemed prophetic of the course which would be adopted with regard to Chilé, Peru, and Guatemala, as soon as a stable governments should be created in these countries.

On the 3rd of February the session of parliament was opened by commission.

The commissioners

present were the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury, the earl of Westmorland, the earl of Harrowby, and the earl of Shaftesbury. After the speaker and several of the members of the House of ComLord Chancellor read the followmons had been introduced, the ing speech:

"My Lords and Gentlemen,
"We are commanded by his
Metropolitan Flour and Bread Com-

pany.

London and Manchester Equitable Loan Company.

Grand Junction Rail-road Company. Erection of a new Pier at St. Ives. Equitable Loan Bank Company. British Patent Brick Company. Investment Bank.

Palladium Insurance Company. Crown Life Assurance Company. London Northern Rail-road Company. British Shipping Loan Company. London, Brighton, and Devonshire Fishing and Steam Navigation Company.

Majesty to express to you the gratification which his Majesty derives from the continuance and progressive increase of that public prosperity upon which his Majesty congratulated you at the opening of the last session of Parliament. There never was a period in the history of this country when all the great interests of the nation were, at the same time, in so thriving a condition, or when a feeling of content and satisfaction was more widely diffused through all classes of the British people. It is no small addition to the gratification of his Majesty that Ireland is participating in the general prosperity. The outrages, for the suppression of which extraordinary powers were confided to his Majesty, have so far ceased, as to warrant the suspension of the exercise of those powers in most of the districts heretofore disturbed. Industry and commercial enterprise are extending themselves in that part of the United Kingdom. It is therefore the more to be regretted that associations should exist in Ireland, which have adopted proceedings irreconcileable with the spirit of the constitution, and calculated, by exciting alarm, and by exasperating animosities, to endanger the peace of society, and to retard the course of national improvement. His Majesty relies upon your wisdom to consider, without delay, the means of applying a remedy to this evil. His Majesty further recommends the renewal of the inquiries instituted last session into the state of Ireland. His Majesty has seen with regret the interruption of tranquillity in India by the unprovoked aggression, and extravagant pretensions of the Burmese government, which rendered hostile operations against that State unavoid

able. It is, however, satisfactory to find that none of the native powers have manifested any unfriendly disposition, and that the bravery and conduct displayed by the forces already employed against the enemy, afford the most favourable prospect of a successful termination of the contest.

"Gentlemen of the House of Commons,

"His Majesty has directed us to inform you, that the Estimates of the year will be forthwith laid before you. The state of India, and circumstances connected with other parts of his Majesty's foreign possessions, will render some augmentation in his military establishments indispensable. His Majesty has, however, the sincere gratification of believing, that notwithstanding the increase of expense arising out of this augmentation, such is the flourishing condition, and progressive improvement, of the revenue, that it will still be in your power, without affecting public credit, to give additional facilities to the national industry, and to make a further reduction in the burthens of his people.

"My Lords and Gentlemen,

"His Majesty commands us to inform you, that his Majesty continues to receive from his allies, and generally from all princes and states, assurances of their unabated desire to maintain and cultivate the relations of peace with his Majesty, and with each other; and that it is his Majesty's constant endeavour to preserve the general tranquillity. The negociations which have been so long carried on through his Majesty's ambassador at Constantinople, between the emperor of Russia and the Ottoman Porte, have been brought to an amicable issue. His Majesty has directed to be laid be

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