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of reche, pure or undegenerated nation; and of huentu, men; a word of similar signification with the vir of the Latin, and as the latter is the root of the word virtus, so from the former is derived huentugen, which signifies the same thing.

"From this ridiculous pride proceeds the contempt with which they regard all other nations. To the Spaniards they gave, on their first knowledge of them, the nickname of chiapi, vile soldiers, from whence proceeded the denomination of chiapeton, by which they are known in South America. They afterwards called them huinca; this injurious appellation, which from time and custom has lost its odiousness, comes from the word huincun, which signifies to assassinate. It is true that in their first battles the Spaniards gave them too much reason for applying to them these opprobrious epithets, which serve to the present time to denote one of that nation. Esteeming themselves fortunate in their barbarity, they call those Indians who live in the Spanish settlements calme-huinca, or wretched Spaniards. To the other Europeans, the English, French, and Italians, whom they readily distinguish from each other, they give the name of maruche, which is equivalent to the term moro, used by the common people of Spain to denote all strangers indiscriminately. They call each other pegni, that is brothers, and even apply the same name to those born in their country of foreign parents.

"The benevolence and kindness with which these people generally treat each other is really surprising. For the word friend they have six or seven very expressive terms in their language, among others that of canay, which corresponds to the alter ego of the Latins. The relations that result from corresponding situations or common concerns in life are so many ties of regard, and are expressed by appropriate words denoting particular friendship or good will. Those who have the same name call each other laca, and those who bear but a part of the name, apellaca. These denominations incur an obligation of mutual esteem and aid. Relations by consanguinity are called in general monmague, and those of affinity, guillan. Their table of genealogy is more intricate than that of the Europeans, all the conceivable degrees of relationship being indicated therein by particular


"From the mutual affection that subsists between them, proceeds their solicitude reciprocally to assist each other in their necessities. Not a beggar or an indigent person is to be found throughout the whole Araucanian territory; even the most infirm and incapable of subsisting themselves are decently clothed.

"This benevolence is not, however, confined only to their countrymen; they conduct themselves with the greatest hospitality towards all strangers of whatever nation, and a traveller may live in any part of their country without the least expense.

"Their usual expression whenever they meet, is marimari, and when they quit each other ventempi, or ventini. [These should be explained.] They are rather tiresome in their compliments, which are generally too long, as they take a pride upon such occasions, as well as every other, in making a display of their eloquence. The right

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hand is, among them, as with the Europeans, the most honourable station, contrary to the practice of the Asiatics, with whom the left enjoys that privilege. They are naturally fond of honourable distinction, and there is nothing they can endure with less patience than contémpt or inattention. From hence, if a Spaniard speaks to one of them with his hat on, he immediately says to him in an indignant tone, entugo tami curtesia, take off your hat. By attention and courtesy, any thing may be obtained from them, and the favours which they receive make an indelible impression upon their minds; while on the contrary, ill treatment exasperates them to such a degree, that they proceed to the greatest excesses to revenge themselves.

"The names of the Araucanians are composed of the proper name, which is generally either an adjective or a numeral, and the family appellation or surname, which is always placed after the proper name, according to the European custom, as cari-lemu, green bush: meliantu, four suns. The first denotes one of the family of the lemus, or bushes, and the second one of that of the antus, or suns. Nor is there scarcely a material object which does not furnish them with a discriminative name. From hence, we meet among them with the families of Rivers, Mountains, Stones, Lions, &c. These families, which are called cuga, or elpa, are more or less respected according to their rank, or the heroes they have given to their country. The origin of these surnames is unknown, but is certainly of a period much earlier than that of the Spanish conquests." Vol. II. p. 110.

There are other peculiarities which distinguish this very singular people, which will well repay the reader's attention; and in particular their military system, their marriage ceremonies, and domestic employments.

The third book contains the history of the wars of the Araucanians with the Spaniards, which is also extended to the fifth, which concludes with an account of the first establishment of peace, and the present state of the country.

To the history is added an Essay on the Chilian language, which will be found in a peculiar degree worth the attention of the philological reader. This essay terminates with a brief vocabulary.

There are two appendixes by the English editor. No I, contains an account of the Archipelago of Chiloe, extracted chiefly from the Description Historical of that province by P. F. Pedro Gonzales de Agueros. Madrid, 1791.

No. II. exhibits an account of the native tribes who inhabit the Southern extremity of South America, extracted chiefly from Falkner's Description of Patagonia-to the first volume sufficiently explicit for the common purposes of the reader, but it is conceived to be very different from that which accompanied the original work. Altogether it is a publication well edited, interesting and amusing in its contents, and a very acceptable addition to our geographical and statistical collections.


Travels in Greece, Palestine, Egypt, and Barbary, during the years 1806 and 1807. By F. A. De Chateaubriand. Translated from the French, by Frederick Shoberl, 8vo. 2 vols. pp. 815. Price 1l. 14s. Colburn. 1811.

IT seems that M. de Chateaubriand, a grandson of the distinguished Malesherbes, has attained much celebrity in France by means of works comparatively very little known in England. The last of these works, preceding this book of Travels, was intitled "The Martyrs; or, the Triumph of the Christian Religion," and is here denominated by the author an epopee. He thought the scenery of that work might be the most effectually poetical by being true to reality; and as his heroes were to be represented accomplishing their labours, and finishing their lives, in several regions of the East, he was desirous that the general ground of the representation should be composed of images immediately taken from the landscapes, the edifices, and whatever is permanent in the manners of the people, of those regions. For this purpose, therefore, as a leading object, he resolved on the adventurous expedition narrated in the present work. He was determined to acquire the power of composing, in effect, in Greece or Palestine, even while sitting in a back parlour of a house in Paris.

never, certainly, was there a more costly preparation for securing the perfection of the secondary parts and merits of a fictitious work; for displaying its personages and transactions on a field characteristically marked in all its features of earth and water, wood and rock; for faithfully exhibiting the appropriate phenomena of the morning and evening in the climate of the Greeks and Hebrews; or for selecting the epithets most accurately expressive of the appearance of marble ruins in the light of the setting sun. So earnest and ambitious an exertion for excellence in the delineation of the scenery, must bring on an author some cause for solicitude and extraordinary effort, lest the story should be less striking than the pictures, and lest his characters, like the people now inhabiting Greece, should seem unworthy of their place.

Two memoirs precede the travelling narration. The first sketches rapidly the history of Athens, from about the age of Augustus, to the present time, and recounts, in order, the travellers who have visited and described it, during the last three centuries. It is briefly noted in what state the monuments were found, at several successive periods; the progress of their dilapidation is thus ascertained; and the memoir closes with expressions of regret. "It is a melancholy reflection, that the civilized

nations of Europe have done more injury to the monuments of Athens in the space of one hundred and fifty years, than all the barbarians together in a long series of ages: it is cruel to think that Alaric and Mahomet II. respected the Parthenon, and that it was demolished by Morosini and Lord Elgin."

The second memoir, a work of much labour, learning, and zeal, is designed to establish the authenticity, indeed the infallibility, of those traditions which have continued through the whole Christian æra, to mark certain places in and near Jerusalem as the precise spots where the most memorable circumstances in the History of Christ and his Apostles took place. The author makes too little allowance for the well known credulity of many of the Christian Fathers, and is not scrupulous of admitting the aid of here and there a groundless assumption; as, for instance, that the sanctuaries of the Christians, at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, being without the walls, must not have suffered much by the siege. On the whole, however, the argument is ably managed, and rendered very strong. The following paragraph affords a very brief summary of it:

"What an astonishing body of evidence is here! The Apostles saw Jesus Christ, they knew the places honoured by the Son of Man; they transmitted the tradition to the first Christian church of Judea; a regular succession of bishops was established, and religiously preserved the sacred tradition: Eusebius appeared, and the history of the sacred places commenced. It was continued by Socrates, Sozomenes, Theodoret, Evagrius, and St. Jerome. Pilgrims thronged thither from all parts. From this period to the present day, an uninterrupted series of travels for fourteen centuries, gives us the same facts and the same descriptions. What tradition was ever supported by such a host of witnesses? Besides, I have not made all the use of the crusades that I might have done."

It is not easy to ascertain exactly in what degree of faith and submissiveness our traveller is an adherent to the Catholic Church. We have some doubt whether his fidelity is of the most punctilious and reverential kind; partly because we do not discern among these memoranda of a portion of his life the traces of any competent number of ceremonial exercises, (which, however, he might perform and say nothing about); and partly because his observations and reflections sometimes appear to indicate a freer use of his faculties, than a dutiful son of the Romish Church should trust himself to make. At the same time, his veneration for "holy places," his large faith in traditions, and the zeal with which he vindicates Monks and Crusades, certainly look well for his orthodoxy. And it must be acknowledged, too, that he has not sought any subterfuge, from the philosophical ri

dicule of his countrymen, in professions of being actuated by no other principles than a liberal curiosity and a passion for the arts. On the contrary, he accompanies the mention of these principles, as a subordinate inducement, with a full surrender of himself, at the outest of the work, to the scorn or pity which he lays his account with incurring, by an avowal that his "principal motive" to the journey was one that has nearly ceased to operate in Christendom, in this degenerate age.

"To the principal motive which impelled me, after so many peregrinations, to leave France once more, were added other considerations. A voyage to the east would complete the circle of studies which I had always promised myself to accomplish. In the deserts of America I had contemplated the monuments of nature; among the monuments of man, I was as yet acquainted with only two species of antiquities, the Celtic and the Roman. I had yet to visit the ruins of Athens, of Memphis, and of Carthage. I was therefore solicitous to perform a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.-At the present day it may appear somewhat strange to talk of vows and pilgrimages; but in regard to this subject I have no sense of shame, and have long ranged myself in the class of the weak and superstitious. Probably I shall be the last Frenchman that will ever quit his country to travel to the Holy Land, with the idea, the object, and the sentiments, of an ancient pilgrim. But if I have not the virtues which shone of yore, in the Sires de Coucy, de Nesle, de Castillon, de Monfort, faith at least is left me; and by this mark I might yet be recognized by the ancient crusaders."

He makes commendable haste to reach Greece, and we may as well meet him on the coast of the "Island of Calypso," delivering his observations on the climate and its influence.

"In Greece, a suavity, a softness, a repose, pervade all nature, as well as the works of the ancients. You may almost conceive, as it were by intuition, why the architecture of the Parthenon has such exquisite proportion; why ancient sculpture is so unaffected, so tranquil, so simple, when you have beheld the pure sky, and delicious scenery of Athens, of Corinth, and of Ionia. In this native land of the Muses, nature suggests no wild deviations; she tends, on the contrary, to dispose the mind to the love of the uniform and of the harmonious." V.I. p. 85.

He does not stay to make any explanation or apology in behalf of this delicious and plastic climate, for now producing or permitting such men as the Turks, and such buildings as Mosques. There is not time: for he has hardly ended these observations, before he is carried off, probably by the last of the nymphs or demigods that may have lingered unseen in Greece, and suddenly conveyed into the company of the shades of Ho mer and Simonides, Aristotle, Philip, Alexander, Cato, Cicero, and other famous personages.

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