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swallow, or h. riparia. This account, at least, supplies, in some degree, an omission of Mr. Adanson; who, in his interesting observations on the appearance of swallows in Africa, has omitted to state what species he observed there, or whether he observed more than one kind of swallow.

The preceding extract affords, in my opinion, another argument to prove the annual migration of swallows. That swallows sometimes have been found dormant, in the winter season, in cold climates, I am not disposed to deny. But had a bird so common with us, generally remained here all the winter in a dormant state, we, probably, should have discovered it more frequently than has ever been pretended. I will even admit that swallows have been found concealed amid rushes, by the banks of rivers, in this state but that they have ever been discovered alive at the bottom of pools and rivers, or otherwise excluded from the access of atmospheric air, we must be permitted to doubt, till it is proved, that the respiratory organs of swallows differ from those of other birds; or, that atmospheric air is unnecessary to the life of dormant animals. The extraordinary suspension of most of the living functions of animals of this class, is a subject of great physiological importance and curiosity; and deserves to be more fully investigated. But the claim of the swallow to an unusual structure of the organs of respiration, is completely overturned by the dissections of the celebrated John Hunter. In the alleged cases of the submersion of swallows, we must make allowance for the credulity, or inaccuracy, of observers; and I think it would not be difficult to refer almost all such alleged facts to one or other of these heads.

Liverpool.

THOM

THOMAS STEWART TRAILL.

FROM THE REPOSITORY.

DESCRIPTION OF THE CATARACT OF TEQUENDAMA, IN
SOUTH AMERICA.

IT has been customary to consider the tremendous Cataract of Niagara, as the most remarkable natural curiosity of its kind in the universe. The inaccuracy of this notion is shown by the following description of the Fall of Tequendama, situated near the city of Santa Fe de Bogota, in the kingdom of New Grenada, in South America; which only requires to be known, in order to establish a just claim to superior celebrity.

This cataract is more commonly known by the name of the

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Leap of Tequendama, derived from the farm or seat where it is found; which has become famous on account of this wonder, as scarcely any of the viceroys whom the sovereign has destined to the government of that kingdom, have failed to visit it. It may easily be supposed what numbers join in those excursions. Nature appears to have contributed to facilitate the examination of this her wonderful work; it being but a short distance from the capital, and the ground so favourable, that with all ease, and without risk, you may ride to the farm in a carriage. There you find a spacious and handsome country-house, capable of containing a great many people: thence you go on horseback to the falls, after you have passed the river on a balsa*, and your horses by swimming, you enter on a mountain as umbrageous as it is delightful. The whole road offers the most agreeable prospects. The exquisite perfume of plants, the harmonious and varied songs of numerous birds, the delightful temperature of the air, and finally, every thing unites to render the jaunt most agreeably amusing. The cataract is about six miles from the house. Before you arrive at the distance of one hundred steps from it, there is a plain, where the declivity of the road, which is of easy descent, terminates; it is less than half a quarter of a league in circumference, of a circular form, and skirted with trees, whose elevated tops form natural umbrellas, that shelter you from the sun, and even from the rain. In this rural spot, it is customary to gratify the appetite by partaking of a repast; to which every thing around seems to invite you. Hence you go down to the falls on foot, amidst trees as heretofore; when, after a few steps, you are suddenly struck with a dazzling light, occasioned by the small particles of water reduced to vapour by their concussion on the rocks. The father Alonzo de Zamora, speaking of the river of Bogota, which forms the cataract, says, "With the impetus that the compressed waters of the river descend, they come dashing by innumerable cliffs covered with beautiful trees, and sweeping over rocks, flow rapidly on until they are precipitated down the famous Leap of Tequendama, celebrated as one of the wonders of nature. Confined to a single channel, it is propelled as water poured out of a pitcher, forming a portion of a circle, which is said to be two hundred and twenty fathoms in height, with as frightful a noise as those of the Nile are said to make. It falls into a beautiful basin, that is more than a league in circumference: generally it cannot be seen very late in the day, because the fall of such a vast body of water forms mists that embarrass the sight; but in the morning it is delightfully entertaining; for the fluid,

Balsa is a raft or float, made of large rushes and gourds, which the Indians propel by paddling with their hands, their bodies being partly in the water.

in passing through the air, is divided into minute particles, on which the rays of the sun produce many rainbows: these, in the basin, add further to its beauty. Our admiration is augmented by the prodigious walls of stone, that art could not have rivalled in regularity; their heights are every where covered by towering and leafy trees, filled with beautiful flowers of various kinds; a natural paradise, inhabited by different species of birds, who mingle their songs to celebrate this wonderful work of nature."

The following more accurate account and measurement of Tequendama, was taken by the colonel-commandant of the royal artillery, Don Domingo Esquiaqui, and sent, with the plan of the falls, to the King of Spain, in 1790.

"From the surface of the river above, to the first shelf, five fathoms;* from the first to the second shelf, thirty-nine fathoms; from the second to the bottom of the basin, eighty-nine and a half fathoms: total, one hundred thirty-three and a half fathoms; from which, deduct the depth of the basin from the surface of the water, twenty fathoms, which leaves the height of the falls, from the natural bed of the river above, to the inferior current, where it flows in the valley, one hundred thirteen and a half fathoms. From this statement it indubitably appears, that our Fall of Tequendama is the most beautiful and stupendous cataract yet known in the world; and that the writers who have described it, have justly applied to it the title of a wonder."

COMPARATIVE SCALE.

Cataract of the Cohoes, near Albany, State of New York do. Niagara (including the upper contiguous rapid) do. Terni, in the road to Rome

do. Tequendama, in the river Bogota

Spanish ft.

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350

933

This must have been measured by the French foot, as it then agrees with the annexed scale.

MISCELLANEOUS.

FLYING AT BERLIN.

M. CLAUDIUS has lately made at Berlin, a promising experiment with his machine for flying. He raised himself several times to the height of fourteen feet in thirty seconds of time, by means of twenty-three strokes of his wings, carrying a weight of thirty-three pounds. He afterwards let himself down from the same height, by means of twenty-five strokes of his wings, in twenty-five seconds, having a force of ascension of twenty-two pounds. The wings are furnished with pipes, which close when the air is struck, and open by their own weight when the air is allowed to pass freely. There are powers of different action in the machine, for rising and descending. The pipes of one set are quiescent, while those of the other are in activity. The motive powers for descent are smaller than those for elevation; that for elevation has a surface of one hundred and sixty square feet. This machine, applied to a balloon, which possesses but feeble powers of rising, permits the aeronaut who conducts the balloon, to rise to a certain height, to remain stationary at that height, and to descend at pleasure, without emitting, and consequently losing any gas; but the inventor does not pretend to work it against the wind, as has been reported.

ANTIQUITIES.

THE ancient city of Veia, in Italy, as is known, was taken by the Romans, in the year of Rome 360: it was re-peopled, and afterwards embellished by the emperors. M. Giorgi, an agriculturist and owner of the soil, having discovered in February last, at twelve feet deep in the earth, a number of columns, employed thirty workmen to prosecute his researches. He has lately found the most beautiful statue of Tiberius known, of heroic size, sitting the head resembles the medals perfectly, and is sublime both in execution and expression; the arms, the knees, the hair, the drapery, are excellent. It is of Greek marble, and the work of a Greek artist. A fine bust, supposed to be of Lepidus; a Phrygian slave; a caryatides; a beautiful head of Flora; the lower part of a figure of a priestess, the drapery in the highest

style; other fragments, an immense dolium, many capitals of columns, &c. were found at the same time. What renders this discovery truly remarkable, is, that the capitals of columns were ranged in an orderly manner, one row on another; the columns were laid along; the head of the statue of Tiberius was placed between his feet. Hence there is every reason to conclude that this edifice was destroyed in an orderly manner; and so that the separated parts might be concealed from the barbarians, perhaps with a view to subsequent re-union.

CURIOUS WATCH.

MR. BERROLLAS, watch-maker, has invented a most useful article, for which his majesty's letters patent have been obtained. It is called a warning-watch. The characteristic quality of this watch is to remind the wearer, by its striking, of any appointment he may have in the course of twenty-four hours, without twice winding up, or even opening the case to set the warninghand to the proper hour. The mechanism of this alarum is of so simple a nature, as not in the least to injure or prevent the wellgoing, or performance, of the other parts of the watch; and this invention deprives the wearer of fear of deranging it, and even allows him no opportunity for mismanagement.-In short, it of fers every desirable convenience at a very moderate expense. The simplicity of its construction is a matter of peculiar consideration, since it can be applied to watches of every description. A mechanism, performing the part of a monitor, by reminding us of any hour at which we may wish to awake in the morning, or any appointment we may have to attend in the course of the day, is incontestibly one of the most convenient and useful objects that can be wished; indeed, to many persons, it is of absolute necessity, and will be found particularly adapted for gentlemen in the army and navy, to many of whom it has already proved of very great utility. These watches are manufactured by Mr. Viner, of Red Lion-street, Clerkenwell.

METEORIC STONES.

The following circumstantial account of three Meteoric Stones, which fell near Orleans, is translated from M. de la Metherie's Journal.

"On the 25th of Nov. 1810, at half past one in the afternoon, three atmospheric stones fell perpendicularly at Charsonville, in the department of Loiret. Their fall was accompanied with a succession of thunder-claps which preceeded them, and lasted some minutes. The noise of these explosions, in number three

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