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cratic sort of machine. There is no greater leveller of distinctions. Two offenders were condemned to be hanged at Tyburn on the same day. The first was sentenced for an exploit on the highway. The latter, who was a chimney-sweeper, was about to suffer for a more ignoble robbery. The highwayman was dressed in gay apparel, and mounted the cart with alacrity. Smut followed with slow and reluctant steps. As the clergyman was fervently praying, the former was very attentive, which the chimneysweeper observing, and being willing to participate in the same spiritual benefit, he approached near to his fellow sufferer. This liberty was met with a repulsive look from his companion, which for some time kept him at a distance. But unmindful of this angry check, when he presumed to advance a little nearer still, the gay robber disdainfully said, "Keep farther off, can't you?" "Sir," replied the indignant sweep, "I won't keep off. I have as much right to be here as you." Customs differ strangely in different countries. In Spain and Portugal, a man who is an executioner entails eternal disgrace on his posterity. He is obliged to live by himself. No one will speak to him or associate with him, and his sons, if he is so unfortunate as to have any, are obliged like the tradesmen in China, to follow their father's profession. Now, in Circassia people of quality exercise this office, and deem the employment an honour. So far from being accounted infamous, it reflects lustre on a whole family. A Circassian will boast what a number of Hangmen he has had among his ancestors. Religious executions have of late years become much less terrible than formerly. The authority of the inquisition, which was once so dreadful, is now very seldom exerted. Several years have passed since the Portuguese have been gratified by their national spectacle, an auto da fè. It used to be a principle with the inquisitors, that it was much better for many good catholicks to suffer, than for one heretick or Jew to go unpunished, for, by the life of the latter, numbers might be perverted: whereas, by putting a true believer to death, you only secured his salvation. By means of this christian-like doctrine, many days of amusement were afforded to the good people of Lisbon. Within the last fifty years the burning of a Jew formed their most exquisite delight. They thronged in crowds to behold this triumph of faith, and the very women shouted with transport as they witnessed the writhings of the agonizing martvr. Neither age nor sex could save this race from persecution. The best of the Portuguese dramatic writers, Antonio da Silva, was burnt solely because he was a Jew. The last that suffered by this tribunal was a half crazy Israelite, who probably was more of a fool than rogue.-He pretended to be a magician, and took in several credulous people before he was discovered by the

spies of the holy office. He gave out that he had known Nebuchadnezzar very intimately; that Job and he had been cronies, and partners together in the same misfortunes. He said that he had carried on a brisk trade as a wine merchant near two thousand years ago in Jerusalem, but was at length swindled out of his property by Judas Iscariot! The Jews were banished from Spain, in 1482, by Ferdinand and Isabella. All who would not consent to embrace christianity were ordered to depart the realm within four months, under pain of death. The greater portion of them took refuge in Portugal, where they were received upon certain conditions by John the second. For a large sum of money they obtained this monarch's permission to remain in his dominions until ships to carry them away could be provided. John readily took their money, which when he had got retracted his promise. He allowed no ships to receive them, and as soon as the stipulated term had expired, he sold them to his subjects for slaves, and confiscated their property. His successor Emanuel set them at liberty, but ordered them soon after to depart the kingdom under pain of servitude for life, unless they were baptized within a specified time. When the period for their departure arrived, the king ordered all their children under fourteen years of age to be taken away and baptized by force. Numbers of the miserable parents, to prevent this, destroyed their children, and afterwards themselves. Not content with this, Emanuel would not allow any to embark, but offered them the alternative of baptism or slavery. The wretched victims of bigotry chose Christianity in preference to servitude, and upwards of three hundred thousand persons submitted to be baptized. Notwithstanding this apparent acquies. cence, the Mosaic law was, and is still secretly transmitted from generation to generation, and that aversion to a religion which they were thus forcibly compelled to embrace, became more inveterate. The tyranny of the inquisition, the persecution and death of so many of their race, has not in any degree abated their fondness for the faith of their fathers. It has rather tended to fix them more strongly to it, and to render them more bigotted, although they have found it necessary to be more circumspect. You now know a Jew by his extra Catholic devotion, and the veritable Israelitish phiz is seen in half the people. The Marquis de Pombal was once opening a fountain in Lisbon, and a great concourse were assembled around him to witness the ceremony. One of his court flies observed to him, "See, my lord, like Moses you make the water flow from the rock." "Aye," said the minister, " and like him I am surrounded by the children of Israel."

October 26. HAVING a strong desire to see the far-famed village of Cintra, as well as to visit the celebrated palace at Mafra, before I left Portugal, I took the first opportunity which my leisure afforded of accomplishing my wishes. On Sunday last, in company with three gentlemen, I undertook this long-contemplated excursion. As we had been pretty well satisfied with the conduct of Senor Baltazar Pacheco, the muleteer who escorted us in our trip to St. Ubes, we engaged the same gentleman to go with us on this expedition. He is a native of Gallicia, and though sufficiently mulish in his disposition, we find him rather less difficult to deal with than the Portuguese of his fraternity. As we had found the calesa an uneasy vehicle, we hired for this journey a coach and six, thinking it would prove a more comfortable method of travelling. In this expectation, we were, however, most grievously disappointed. The six mules attached to the machine were harnessed with ropes. Their heads were as gaily bedight, and their rumps as ingeniously ornamented, as the animals that carried us on our former jaunt. If possible, we traveled more musically than before; each mule having twenty bells about his head and neck. After we had seated ourselves in the coach, we took notice of a trifling defect, of which we were not previously aware, viz. that our eyes, as we sat, were elevated about six inches higher than the tops of the windows. This was exceedingly well calculated for enabling us to enjoy the prospect, and for seeing the country to advantage. Being uncertain how we might fare on the road, we lay in a sufficient stock of provisions before we set out. In doing this our friend Balthazar was of considerable assistance to us, and notwithstanding it was a fast day, he procured us several articles by stealth; his conscience not being more nice in this respect than was that of Sancho Panza. At this season the weather is so hot, that travelling is disagreeable, except in the morning and evening. We therefore proposed to rest during the heat of the day at Quelus, and to proceed to Cintra as the sun declined. The country around Lisbon is agreeably diversified with orange and lemon trees, vineyards and quintas. The roads are mostly paved with large stones. The greater part of the country about the town is covered with large gardens, which are surrounded with lofty walls. You will sometimes travel for leagues without seeing any other object. The eye not only soon gets wearied by such a dull monotony, which is a remnant of the morose taste of the Moors, but you are in continual danger of mistaking the road. The appearance of these walls is more like fortifications than gardens. Strangers are particularly struck with the hedges by which the roads are skirted in this country. They are formed

of the aloes and the Indian fig tree. The former is used here only for hedges. This shrub is difficult to confine within bounds. It is easily planted, and will grow on the worst soil. The hedges formed of it are impenetrable to cattle. In September and the present month, when the aloes is in bloom, its high stems are covered with flowers, and it forms a very beautiful object. The stem at this time is twelve or fourteen feet in height. It blows the sixth or seventh year. As soon as the flowers are completely blown, the leaves begin to decay, and shortly wither and die. Numerous young sprouts are continually produced about the old plants. A kind of thread is made from the leaves of the aloes, by pressing out the juice, and scraping them until the nerves and ligaments become separated into fine threads. When this is done, they are hung over a cord in the sun to dry. The thread is not strong, and rots easily on being wet, yet it is employed for many purposes. The Indian figtree, called figo do inferno by the Portuguese, on account of its prickles, does not form so good a hedge as the aloes, but it will grow on a soil equally barren. This shrub is said to be originally from the Indies. It grows every-where without cultivation, in the crevices of rocks where there is scarcely earth enough for it to take root. The flower is about the size of a carnation, and of a deep orange colour. It produces a pleasant fruit, resembling the common fig, which is sold in the streets of Lisbon. We saw in the hedges many pomegranate trees. Notwithstanding we set out at an early hour, it soon became excessively warm. The sun at this season generates all sorts of reptiles. The hot weather hatched into life myriads of flies, gnats, beetles, and musquitoes.

"The air

"Was peopled with the insect tribe that float
"Upon the noon-tide beam."

We saw great numbers of lizards of different sizes. Some were small and apparently harmless. Others were so large and fierce that they turned about and hissed at Balthazar's bandy-legged dog. He barked at them most valiantly, though he seemed very unwilling to come to a closer encounter. The mouths of many appeared large enough to swallow a hen's egg. I took one in my hand. It was as cold to the touch as ice, and was beautifully speckled with blue, green, and yellow spots. The tail breaks off from the body, and continues a long time alive. Every-where by the road side, and in the fields, we saw snakes basking in the



"The green serpent from his dark abode

"Which e'en imagination fears to tread,
"At noon forth issues."

These reptiles are not confined to the country. They even infest the houses of Lisbon. You will frequently see lizards crawling on the walls of your bed chamber, where vipers also often penetrate. One of them having been discovered in the apartment of a lady, she searched for it a long time ineffectually. At last, accidentally casting her eyes on the serpentine fluting of her bedpost, she perceived that the green and gilded snake had wreathed itself about it. The way in which they exterminate these unpleasant inmates is, by sending for a priest, who exorcises them, and sprinkles holy water about the house.

At Quelus, in an enclosed solitary vale environed with hills, stands a royal palace. This edifice, which was a favourite residence of the Prince Regent, is spacious and richly furnished, though low and without regularity of design. It has, within the last year, been fitted up by Junot with great magnificence, for himself, or for whichever of his satraps Napoleon may have designed to place on the throne of Portugal. In the great hall of the palace, which is beautifully painted, he caused a magnificent throne to be erected. The decorations of this apartment are unusually splendid. Its walls are hung round with mirrors from the famous manufactory of St. Idelfonso, of vast dimensions.

"in which he of Gath,

"Goliah might have seen his giant bulk

"Whole without stooping, towering crest and all."

The palace is at present occupied by part of the British staff. The amazing length of the leagues deceived us, and we were benighted. It grew very dark, and just before we reached Cintra, there came on a violent storm of thunder, lightning, rain and hail, in the midst of which our equipage broke down. Luckily no bones were broken. I thought Balthazar would have gone mad. He invoked St. Antonio and the holy Virgin to lend him their assistance, consigning his mules to all the devils in hell, whom he requested to come and carry off the coach. Seeing no signs which indicated the approach of the former personages, we left the driver of mules to get out of his difficulties as well as he could, and made the best of our way to the village, where we arrived, drenched to the skin. At the inn, which is kept by an Irish woman, we found ourselves amply compensated for the disaster which had befallen us. The landlady showed us the most assiduous attention. The excellence and neatness of her house cannot be exceeded even in England. We met with every luxury, both of bed and board. When we had dried our clothes, we found a most excellent supper provided for us a l'Angloise. We had a beef-steak dressed to perfection. It was the first I had eaten since I left England, and equal to Dolly's.

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