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he continued to urge them with an obstinacy suitable to his character. From complaints he proceeded to demands; requiring that the protestants in Silesia should be indulged with the free exercise of their religion, according to the treaty of Westphalia; that his Imperial majesty should relinquish all pretensions to the quota which the king of Sweden was bound to furnish, by the tenure on which he possessed his German dominions; and that the whole Swedish army, in its return through Silesia into Poland, should be maintained at the charge of the court of Vienna9.

The queen of England though sensible the emperor was not in a situation to refuse those imperious demands, was afraid that the pride of Joseph might overcome his attention to the interests of the allies. She, therefore, ordered the duke of Marlborough, who was no less a statesman and a courtier than a general, to repair to Saxony, and attempt to soothe the king of Sweden. When the duke arrived in the Swedish camp, at Alt-Ranstadt, where he was received with the respect due to his character, he paid Charles many handsome compliments, to which no answer was returned, but which had notwithstanding perhaps the desired effect. He went even so far as to tell the northern conqueror, that he should esteem it a peculiar happiness, could he have an opportunity of learning, under so great a commander, those parts of the military science which he did not yet understand. And having acquired, by a long course of experience, the art of diving into the characters of men, and of reading their most secret thoughts in their looks and gestures, he soon discovered the inclinations and views of the king of Sweden. In the pleasure with which he talked of

9. Contin. Puffend. liv. vii. Burnet, book vii.

10. The emperor, it appears, was by no means so haughty as the queen imagined; for when the pope complained of his restoring the churches to the protestants, he facetiously replied, " Had the king of Sweden proposed "that I should become a lutheran myself, I know not what might have "been the consequence." Mem. de Brandenburg, tom. i.

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the victories of the allies, Marlborough perceived his aversion against France; while the kindling of his eye at the name of the czar, and a map of Russia lying upon his table, made this profound politician intimately acquainted with the future designs of Charles. He therefore took leave, without making him any proposals; sensible that his disputes with the emperor could be easily accommodated, as all his demands would be granted". England and Holland accordingly guaranteed the promises of the court of Vienna; and the czar having entered Poland, the king of Sweden repassed the Oder, in quest of new victories, and in hopes of soon returning to hold the balance of Europe.

In Flanders, no event of any importance happened during this campaign, nor any thing memorable at sea. The duke de Vendome prudently avoided an action, and made his movements with so much judgment, that Marlborough found no opportunity of attacking him to advantage. The naval operations were chiefly confined to the siege of Toulon.

The reduction of the Spanish dominions in Italy, and the capitulation signed at the beginning of the campaign, in consequence of which the French army abandoned Lombardy, having left prince Eugene and the duke of Savoy perfectly disengaged, a plan was formed by them, in conjunction with the maritime powers, for invading France from that quarter, and of reducing Toulon or Marseilles ; an enterprize which, if attended with success, it was hoped would put a final close to the war. The prince and the duke, after having for some time amused the enemy, by a feint upon Dauphiny, in order to conceal their real design, accordingly turned off toward the shore of the Mediterranean; forced the passage of the river Var; proceeded along the coast of Provence; and arrived, by a long and difficult march, before Toulon; while sir Cloudsly Shovel, with a formidable fleet,


11. "These particulars," says Voltaire, "I had from the duchess of "Marlborough." Hist. Ch. XII. liv. iii. 12. Burnet, book vii. attended

attended their motions, supplied the army with necessaries, and blocked up the town by sea13.

Unfortunately for the allies, only two hours before prince Eugene appeared with the van of the Imperialists, the French had found means to throw eight thousand men into Toulon. They had taken possession of all the eminences that commanded the city; and the confederates in attempting to gain these, were either repulsed with great slaughter, or obliged to acquire and maintain them, at a still greater expence of blood. Discouraged by circumstances so adverse, by the bad condition of their army, the want of concert in their operations, and apprehensive of being surrounded by a superior force, as the French were in motion on every side, the duke of Savoy and prince Eugene judged it prudent to abandon their enterprize, though sensible that the hopes and fears of all Europe hung suspended on its issue14. But this expedition, though finally unsuccessful, was extremely detrimental to France. The confederates, in their passage and return through Provence, ruined a vast extent of country. And the detachments drawn from the army of mareschal Villars, in order to succour Toulon, obliged him to relinquish all his high projects in Germany, and to repass the Rhine, instead of advancing beyond the Da nube15.

The failure of the attempt upon Toulon, joined to the inactive campaign in Flanders, and the misfortunes of the confederates in Spain, furnished the enemies of the duke of Marlborough and of the lord treasurer Godolphin with plausible pretexts for discrediting their measures; and intrigues were formed for overturning their administration. These intrigues were chiefly conducted by Mr. Secretary Harley, who had acquired a very considerable share of the queen's confidence, by flattering her political prejudices; and who, in order to strengthen his own interest, had secur

13. Id. Ibid. Voltaire, Siecle, chap. xx. taire, ubi sup.

15. Barre.

14. Burnet, book vii. VolBurnet. Voltaire.


ed the support of Mrs. Masham, a new female favourite, who had partly supplanted the duchess of Marlborough in the affections of the queen16; or rather in that ascendant, though she did not usurp the same absolute dominion, which the duchess had established over the mind of her timid mistress.

A, D. 1701.

Apprised of the scheme that was formed for their ruin, Marlborough and Godolphin complained of Harley's intrigues to the queen; and not meeting with a satisfactory answer, they both threatened to resign their places, and absented themselves from the cabinet council. The council was struck with consternation. Even the secretary shrunk from the load that was ready to fall on his shoulders. And the queen, from fear, not regard, recalled her ministers, and dismissed Harley, whose fortune his friend St. John, secretary at war, and others chose to follow, by resigning their places; yet not without hopes of having it one day in their power to govern the councils of their sovereign, by fostering her affection for the excluded branch of her fami ly, and increasing her secret aversion against the succession of the house of Hanover17,

This division in the English cabinet, and the discontents in Scotland occasioned by the union, encouraged Lewis XIV. to make an attempt in favour of the pretended prince of Wales, whom he had acknowledged by the title of James III, not doubting but he should be able, at least, to create such distractions in Great-Britain as would weaken the efforts of the allies in Flanders. To that attempt Lewis was farther incited by the eager solicitations of the Scottish jacobites, who offered to raise and equip thirty thousand men, at their own expence, and to furnish them with provisions until they could march into England18.

In consequence of these magnificent promises, the pretender, under the name of the chevalier de St. George, 17. Id. Ibid. See also Stuart Papers.

16. Burnet, book vii. 18. Hook's Negociation.

sailed from Dunkirk on board a French fleet, commanded by M. de Fourben, with between five and six thousand land forces, ten thousand muskets, and a supply of other implements of war. Their purpose was to enter the frith of Forth, and land in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. But, through the ignorance or inattention of their pilots, they overshot their destination; and before they could recover their mistake, sir George Byng, with a superior English fleet, had taken possession of the frith'9. Seeing now no prospect of success, and afraid of the capture of the whole squadron, the French admiral returned to Dunkirk, with the loss of only one ship, but to the utter confusion of the hopes of the pretender, and his adherents both in France and Great-Britain20.

19. Burnet, book vii. Duke of Berwick's Mem. vol. i.

20. It is truly amusing to observe the extravagance of the jacobite writers in speaking of this intended invasion: They confidently affirm, that if the pretender could have landed in Scotland, with only the appearance of an army, he would soon have been enabled to march into England, in spite of all opposition; and by the junction of his English and Scottish adherents, to have given law to a princess, who was giving law to Europe! Nay, they do not scruple to declare that the queen's affection for her brother was so great, that, on his approach with a respectable force, she would readily have consented to the breaking of the union, and to his immediate accession to the Scottish crown, that she might have a more certain prospect of transmitting to him the crown of England; not reflecting that his natural right to both crowns was preferable to hers; and therefore that any attempt to claim either, in her life-time, must have excited the highest jealousy. The same writers, in the madness of rage at their cruel disappointment, even assert that Lewis XIV. gave Fourben positive orders not to land the troops which he had ordered him to embark; though by their embarkation, which he was under no necessity of ordering, and the voyage to Scotland, in consequence of it, he hazarded the loss of a very considerable armament! (See Macpherson's Hist. of Great-Britain, vol. ii. where the reveries of all the jacobite writers may be found). These are shocking absurdities! but it is the unhappiness of party writers in general, and particularly of the abettors of the rights of the unfortunate family of Stuart, to pay little regard to truth, to reason, or probability, in the vehement prosecution of their arguments-to the proofs founded on facts or those arising from circumstances!


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