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The Imperialists were not more successful on the Upper Rhine; where the prince of Baden, though elated with the taking of Landau, was defeated at Fridlengen, by the marquis de Villars, immediately after created a mareschal of France. "I have heard, says Voltaire, "mareschal Vil"lars declare more than once, that as he was marching at "the head of his infantry, after the battle was gained, a "voice called, We are undone! On hearing this, all his

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troops fled. He ran after them, crying, come back my "friends! the victory is ours. Long live the king! The "trembling soldiers repeated, Long live the king, but con"tinued to fly: and the marquis found the utmost difficulty "in rallying the conquerors?" On such trivial circumstances often depend the issue of the greatest battles. Had a single regiment of Imperialists appeared during this panic, the French, so lately victorious, would have been totally routed.

The house of Bourbon was less fortunate on the side of Flanders. The allies began the campaign with the siege of Keyserswært, which the elector of Cologne had placed in the hands of the French, and which surrendered after a siege of two months. The duke of Burgundy, who commanded the French army, having under him mareschal Boufflers, it was expected would either have attempted the relief of that important place, or have invested some other; but, by a strange piece of misconduct, he lay almost totally inactive during the whole siege, and till the earl of Marlborough arrived to take command of the allied army. Marlborough, who was no less prudent than active, and who may be said to have united the enterprising spirit of the hero to the caution and foresight of the consummate general, resolved immediately to attack the duke of Burgundy: and had he not been restrained by the timidity of the field-deputies of the States, he would have gained a complete victory

9. Siecle, chap. xvii.

10. Duke of Berwick's Mem. vol. i.

over the French". Though thus confined in his operations, the English commander contrived, by masterly movements, by marches and counter-marches, to throw himself between the enemy and the principal towns of Spanish Guel. derland; where he reduced successively, and without molestation, Venlo, Ruremonde, and Liege; conquests of the greatest importance, as by the acquisition of those places the navigation of the Maese was opened, and a free communication with Maestricht12.

The operations at sea were even more favourable to the allies, than those by land; though not in all respects equal to their hopes. The confederate fleet, under sir George Rooke, consisting of fifty English and Dutch ships of the line, with twelve thousand troops on board, commanded by the duke of Ormond, appeared before Cadiz, and summoned that city to surrender to the house of Austria, or run the hazard of an attack from such a formidable armament. But the governor paid no regard to this threat. The place was much stronger than the besiegers expected; so that the duke of Ormond found it necessary to re-embark his troops, after they had taken fort St. Catherine, made an unsuccessful attemps on fort Matagorda, and pillaged fort St. Mary, contrary to his express orders. His next attempt was more fortunate.

The confederates after leaving Cadiz, sailed for Vigo, where the galleons under convoy of twenty-three French ships of war, commanded by the count de Chateau-Renaud, were just arrived from America. As the wealth on board these galleons was considered as the chief resource of the Spanish monarchy, and even of the whole house of Bourbon, Lewis XIV. expected to share in it, the utmost precaution

11. Burnet, book vii. Duke of Berwick's Mem. vol. i. "We were "posted in such a manner," says the duke of Berwick, "that we should "have been beaten without being able to stir; our left being very high, "and our right sunk into a cul-de-sac between two rivulets." Mem. ubi sup. 12. Id. Ibid.


had been taken to secure them 13. They were carried up into a bason, through a narrow entrance, one side of which was defended by a fort, the other by platforms mounted with cannon. A boom was thrown across the mouth of the bason, and within the boom the French squadron was drawn up. But all these obstacles were not sufficient to discourage the confederates, when animated by the hopes of so rich a booty. The duke of Ormond having landed part of his troops took the castle: the boom was broken by the fleet; and the French admiral, perceiving that all farther resistance would be in vain, set fire to his ships. The galleons followed the desperate example; but the English and Dutch were at hand, to extinguish the flames. Six ships of war were taken, seven sunk, and nine burnt. Of thirteen galleons, nine fell into the hands of the conquerers, and four were destroyed; and although the greater part of the trea sure had been landed, and carried to Lago, the booty was immense, and the consternation of the house of Bourbon excessive'4.

Before intelligence of this important blow arrived in England, both houses of parliament had congratulated her majesty on the success of her arms, under the earl of Marlborough, who was soon after created a duke, and liberal supplies were voted for carrying on the war. The good humour of the parliament was increased, by the news of the destruction of the enemy's fleet at Vigo: the hopes of the nation ran high; the most vigorous preparations were made, and the affairs of the allies every where wore a very favour

13. Mem. de Noailles, tom. ii.

14. Id. Ibid. Burnet, book vii. Lives of the Admirals, vol. iii. Lewis XIV. who combined, with the most insatiable and bloody ambition, a strange mixture of piety and resignation, writes thus in a consolatory letter to the queen of Spain, then at the head of the government ;-" Events are in the "hands of God, who often draws good out of what we consider as our "greatest misfortunes. If it is possible to prevent the bad effects of that "disaster which has happened, your majesty has prevented them." Mem. de Noailles, tom. ii.


JAN. 5.

able aspect. The duke of Savoy, who had been long wa vering, openly deserted the interests of France A. D. 1703. and Spain, and concluded a treaty with the emperor, to the astonishment of the house of Bourbon; he being not only a grandson of Lewis XIII. but father-in-law to the duke of Burgundy, and Philip V. From motives of interest, Peter VI. king of Portugal, also united himself to the confederates 15.


To the defection of those two princes, the French ascribed their subsequent misfortunes in the war. Lewis XIV. however, made great preparations for opening the next campaign, and was by no means wanting in success. Meantime the elector of Bavaria, the firm ally of France, carried on hostilities with vigour in the heart of Germany. He took Neuberg, on the Danube, early in the season: he defeated the Imperialists at Passau; and having taken Burglenfield and Ratisbon, was joined at Dutlingen by mareschal Villars. Afterward, disappointed in an attempt to enter Tyrol, and open a communication with the French army in Italy, he rejoined Villars in Suabia. They crossed the Danube; and Villars understanding that the count de Styrum, at the head of twenty thousand men, was on his march to join the formidable army of the prince of Baden, near Donawert, said to the elector, "We must prevent this: we must advance and attack Styrum." The elector hesitated, and said he would consult with his ministers and generals. "Can you want any other council than mine, "when the question is about giving battle?" Full of apprehensions for his dominions, the elector was still averse from the mareschal's proposal, and not a little displeased at this freedom. "Well!" said Villars, "if your highness will not "seize this opportunity with your Bavarians, I will engage with the French only :-it must not be lost." He accord

15. Burnet. Voltaire:



ingly ordered his troops to march; and the elector, though filled with indignation, found himself under the necessity of fighting against his judgment 16. They attacked the enemy in the plains of Hochstet, and gained a complete victory. Three thousand Imperialists were killed; four thousand were made prisoners; and all their artillery and baggage fell into the hands of the conquerors. The victorious army put the elector of Bavaria in posses. sion of Augsburg; and the road to Vienna being thus laid open, the emperor trembled in his capital.

The consternation of Leopold was, in some measure, excusable. The duke of Burgundy, who commanded the French army on the side of Alsace, having under him the mareschals Tallard and Vauban, had made himself master of Old Brisac; and Tallard, before the end of the campaign, not only retook Landau, but defeated, with great slaughter, an army of the allies, under the prince of Hesse, who was advancing to its relielf 18. In Italy, where Staremberg commanded for the emperor, the duke de Vendome disarmed, by surprize, the troops of the duke of Savoy: reduced Barsillio, defeated Visconti, and took possession of the territories of the duke of Modena 19.

The French were less successful in the Netherlands; where the duke of Marlborough, having concerted measures with the States, was enabled to appear early in the field. He opened the campaign with the siege of Bonne, a strong city in the circle of the Lower Rhine, and the usual residence of the elector of Cologne. That prince, brother to the elector of Bavaria, had placed Bonne, with his other dominions, in the hands of the French at the beginning of the war. Though gallantly defended by the marquis d'Alegre, it was forced to surrender, after a siege of twelve days.

16. These particulars are related by Voltaire, from the manuscript Memoirs of Mareschal Villars, written by himself. Siecle, chap. xvii. 17. Id. Ibid. 18. Burnet. Voltaire. Hainault. 19. Ibid. But

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