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Enraged at these violences, the Spaniards declared war, and attempted to retaliate. And the prince of Orange was eager for a general confederacy against France; but not being able to induce his uncle, the king of England, to take part in it, he laid aside the design. The emperor, still deeply involved in the war with the Turks and Hungarians, could make no effort on the side of Flanders; and the Spaniards alone were unequal to the contest in which, forgetting their weakness, they had already engaged. A truce of twenty years was, therefore, concluded by Spain and the Empire,. with France, at Ratisbon. The principal articles of this temporary treaty were, That Lewis should restore Courtray and Dixmude, but retain possession of Luxembourg, Strasburg, the fortress of Kehl, and part of the reunions made by his arbitrary courts established at Metz and Brisac.

The glory and greatness of the French monarch were still farther extended by means of his naval power. He had now raised his lately created marine to a degree of force that exceeded the hopes of France, and encreased the fears of Europe. He had upward of an hundred ships of the line, and sixty thousand seamen3. The magnificent port of Toulon, in the Mediterranean, was constructed at an immense expence; and that of Brest, upon the ocean, was formed on as extensive a plan. Dunkirk and Havre-de-Grace were filled with ships; and Rochefort, in spite of nature, was converted into a convenient harbour. Nor did Lewis, though engaged in no naval war, allow his ships to lie inactive in these ports. He sent out squadrons at different times, to clear the seas of the Barbary pirates; he ordered Algiers twice to be bombarded; aud he had the pleasure not only of humbling that haughty predatory city, and of obliging the Algerines to release all their Christian slaves, but of subjecting Tunis, and Tripoli to the same conditions?.

The republic of Genoa, for a slight offence, was no less severely treated than Algiers. The Genoese were accused of

7. Dumont, Corp. Diplom. tom. ii. 9. Id. Ibid.

8. Voltaire, Siecle, chap. xiii.


having sold bombs and gunpowder to the Algerines; and they had farther incurred the displeasure of Lewis, by engaging to build four gallies for the Spaniards. He commanded them, under pain of his resentment,. not to launch those gallies. Incensed at this insult on their independency, the Genoese paid no regard to the menace. They seemed even desirous of shewing their contempt of such arrogance; but they had soon occasion to repent their temerity. Fourteen ships of the line, twenty gallies, ten bomb-ketches, and seve ral frigates, immediately sailed from Toulon, under old Duquesne; and appearing before Genoa, suddenly reduced to a heap of ruins part of those magnificent buildings, which have obtained for that city the appellation of PROUD. Four thousand men were landed, and the suburb of St. Peter d'Arena was burnt. It now became necessary for the Genoese to make submissions, in order to prevent the total destruction of their capital. Lewis demanded, that the Doge, and four of the principal senators, should come and implore his clemency in his palace at Versailles; and, in order to prevent the Genoese from eluding this satisfaction, or depriving him of any part of his triumph, he insisted that the Doge, who should be sent to deprecate his vengeance, should be continued in office, notwithstanding the perpetual law of the republic, by which a Doge is deprived of his dignity the moment he quits the city1o. These humiliating conditions were complied with. Imperiale Lascaro, Doge of Genoa, in his ceremonial habit, accompanied by four of the principal senators, appeared before Lewis in a supplicating posture. The Doge, who was a man of wit and vivacity, on being asked by the French courtiers what he saw most extraordinary at Versailles, very pointedly replied-"To see myself here!"

A. D. 1685.

The grandeur of Lewis XIV. was now at its highest point of elevation; but the sinews of his real power were already

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somewhat slackened, by the death of the great Colbert. That excellent minister, to whom France owes her most valuable manufactures, her commerce, and her navy, had enabled his master, by the order and economy with which he conducted the finances, to support the most expensive wars; to dazzle with his pomp all the nations of Europe; and to corrupt its principal courts, without distressing his people. He has, however, been accused of not sufficiently encouraging agriculture, and of paying too much attention to the manufactures connected with luxury. But these, which for a time made all her neighbours in a manner tributary to France, he was sensible, only could supply the excessive drain of war, and the ostentatious waste of the king. He was not at liberty to follow his own judgment. The necessities of the state obliged him to adopt a temporary policy; and to encourage the more sumptuous manufactures at the expence of general industry, and consequently of population.


But in the prosecution of this system, which, though radically defective, was the best that could be adopted in such circumstances, Colbert employed the wisest measures. not only established the most ingenious, and least known manufactures, such as silks, velvets, laces, tapestries, carpets; but he established them in the cheapest and most convenient places, and encouraged, without distinction, persons of all nations and all religions. Above the rest, the Hugonots, or French Protestants, seemed to claim his attention. Having long lost their political consequence, they devoted themselves chiefly to manufactures. They every where recommended themselves by their industry and ingenuity, which were often -rewarded with great opulence. This opulence begat envy; envy produced jealousy; and soon after the death of Colbert, who had always protected and patronized them, these useful and ingenious sectaries, without the imputation of any crime, were exposed to a cruel and impolitic persecution,


which reduced them to the necessity of abandoning their

native country.

This persecution, whose progress was marked by the re vocation of the famous Edict of Nantz, which secured to the French protestants the free exercise of their religion, and was understood to be perpetual, throws peculiar disgrace on the polished court and enlightened reign of Lewis XIV. Even before the revocation of that edict, so blindly bigoted, or violent and short sighted, were the French ministers, that the protestants were not only excluded from all civil employments, but rendered incapable of holding any share in the principal silk manufactories, though they only could carry them on to advantage''!

One might think, from such regulations, that those ministers had lived in the darkest ages, or were determined to ruin the state. Nor were their ordinances, after repealing the Edict of Nantz, less impolitic or absurd. They banished all the protestant pastors, without once suspecting the flock would follow them; and when that evil was perceived, it was ineffectually decreed, that such as attempted to leave the kingdom should be sent to the gallies. Those who remained, were prohibited even the private exercise of their religion, on pain of death; and, by a singular piece of barbarity, the children of protestants were ordered to be taken from their parents, and committed to their nearest catholic relations, or, in default of those, to such other good catholics as the judges should appoint for their education. A. D. 1686. All the terrors of military execution, and all the artifices of priestcraft, were employed to make converts; and such as relapsed, were sentenced to the most cruel punishments. A twentieth part of the whole body was put to death in a short time, and a price was set on the heads of the rest, who were hunted like wild beasts upon the mountains12.

11. Mem. de Noailles, par l'Abbe Millot, tom. i.
12. Id. Ibid. See also Voltaire, Siecle, chap. xxxii.


By these severities, in spite of the guards that were placed on their frontiers, and every other tyrannical restraint, France was deprived of near six hundred thousand of her most valuable inhabitants, who carried their wealth, their industry and their skill in ingenious manufactures, into England, Holland, and Germany; where Lewis XIV. found, in his own fugitive, and once faithful subjects, not only formida ble rivals in commerce, but powerful enemies burning with revenge, and gallant soldiers ready to set bounds to his ambition.

But while Lewis thus persecuted the French protestants, contrary to all the principles of humanity and sound policy, he was no dupe to the court of Rome. On the contrary, he did every thing in his power to mortify Innocent XI. a man of virtue and abilities, who now filled the papal chair. He carried ecclesiastical disputes with him as far as possible, without separating the Gallican church entirely from the apostolic see. In civil affairs, the contest was still

A. D. 1687.

warmer, and took its rise from a singular abuse. The ambassadors of popish princes at Rome extended what they called their quarters, or the right of freedom and asylum, to a great distance from their houses. This pernicious privilege rendered one half of Rome a certain refuge for all sorts of criminals; and, by another privilege, as whatever entered Rome under the sanction of an ambassador's name, paid no duty, the trade of the city suffered, and the state was defrauded of its revenue. In order to remedy these abuses, Innocent prevailed on the emperor and the king of Spain to forego such odious rights; and an application to the same purpose was made to the king of France, entreating him to concur with the other princes in promoting the tranquility and good order of Rome. Lewis, who was already dissatisfied with the pope, haughtily replied, that he had never made the conduct of others an example to himself; but, on the contrary, would make himself an example to others13! He ac

13. Voltaire, Siecle, chap. xiii.


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