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the 8th of September, informed the king and his ministers, that the French generalissimo would not accede to the suggestion, and delivered a memorandum containing the terms, on which alone the invaders were willing to treat.


The embarrassments of the constitutionalists increased every day. To the want of financial resources, which were in vain endeavoured to be supplied by forced loans, were added apprehensions of military mutiny. Several companies of the regiment of San Marcial, which had till then been distinguished for liberalism, exhibited such unequivocal symptoms of sedition, that it became necessary to have recourse to severe punishments. The convocation of the extraordinary Cortes, which took place on the 6th of September, was hurtful rather than beneficial: for the time was

*The following is a copy of the memorandum above alluded to:

"I can treat of nothing until the king is free. Let the king and royal family repair either to Chiclana or Port St. Mary's, as his majesty chooses. I will use the whole of my influence with his majesty, in order that he may promise and grant, of his own free will, such institutions as he shall judge to be suitable to the happiness, wants, and tranquillity of his people; and in order that he may announce that he forgets the past. All those who wish to leave Spain may with draw wherever they think proper; and in consequence thereof, orders shall be given to the admiral. A French division shall enter Cadiz for the purpose of maintaining order there, preventing re-actions and protecting every one."

The last paragraph was modified in the following manner :-" The French troops shall occupy La Isla de Leon, as far and including the Cortadura and Fort Puntales. The ground between these two points and the town shall be

neutral. The armistice with the town shall be for two months. The commercial relations shall be re-establish


wasted in vain discussions, and
not one energetic measure was

The naval preparations of the
besiegers being completed, and Du.
Perre having replaced Hamelin,
an attack was made on Santi Petri.
This fort made at first a show of
stout resistance; but at sight of
the boats which the French admiral
had sent off to effect a landing, the
white flag was hoisted; and, on the
20th of September, a capitulation
was concluded. The bombardment
of Cadiz was begun at eight o'clock
on the morning of the 23rd, and
continued till half past ten, when
by a shifting of the wind, the boats
were forced to change their position.
The French next attempted to land
on the isle of Leon, at its southern

The Spaniards now saw the danger of their situation, and the impossibility of making any successful defence. Mutinies and dissensions began to shake their confidence in each other, and the Cortes could come to no decided line of conduct. At last they determined by a majority of 60 to 30 to abandon all thoughts of further resistance; and it was agreed that Ferdinand should be allowed to join the duke d' Angoulême at Port St. Mary's, while he, on his part, promised full oblivion and pardon of all offences committed by, or alleged against, the constitu tionalists. This promise was reduced into an authentic form in a proclamation issued by the king immediately before he left the isle of Leon, and which, he voluntarily assured his ministers, expressed truly his real sentiments.

On the 1st of October, Ferdinand and his family repaired to the head quarters of the duke d' Angoulême, where his first acts were to break all the promises he had given, and

blast all hopes of safety and freedom entertained by the vanquished constitutionalists. He issued an order that Cadiz should be instantly delivered up to the French; and on the 3rd of October, they took possession of that city.

While these events were going on at Cadiz, the successes of the French had enabled them to prosecute the siege of the fortified towns with more vigour than in the beginning of the campaign. Marshal Lauriston, with 10,000 men, pressed Pampeluna so closely, that the garrison, abandoning all hopes of a successful defence, capitulated on the 17th of September. Santona surrendered on the 26th of that month, and St. Sebastian on the 27th. Fernandez who had been governor of Cardona carried assistance to Figueras; but having met with no sincere co-operation from the garrison within the town, his struggle before its walls served only as a proof of his own valour without having the effect of raising the siege. Figueras, too, surrendered by capitulation to the French. In consequence of the fall of these fortresses, not less than 12,000 Spaniards were carried prisoners of war into France.

Mina could have protracted the contest in Catalonia; but to have done so would have exhausted still further his unhappy country with out any chance of final success. He therefore consented to surrender Barcelona upon certain terms; that city was occupied by the French on the 4th of November; and its fall was followed, as of course, by the submission of Tarra gona and Hostalrich. The principal condition which Mina bargained for, was, that the militia should be allowed to return to their homes without being exposed to

the molestation of the royalists. Having taken care of the safety of his soldiers, he saw the necessity of consulting next for his own. The fidelity and zeal which he had displayed in the prosecution of the war, he knew, must necessarily have incurred the hatred of a monarch, who had no regard to former promises and no indulgence towards those who once opposed his will; and he therefore prudently made England his home, where he was received on his landing with the most enthusiastic applause. Mina lost much by his fidelity, but Ballasteros and Morillo gained nothing by their treason. The one remained unrewarded, and the other stripped of his honours fled to France, to conceal his shame and live in obscurity.

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Badajos and Carthagena held out till the end of the war. In October they surrendered; and on the 13th of November Ferdinand reached Madrid, and the campaign was completed. The duke d' Angoulême re-crossed the Bidassoa on the 23rd of the same month, and on the 2nd of December made his triumphant entry into Paris. He left behind him the greater part of his army; and by a convention between the two governments, the principal fortresses and cities of Spain were to be occupied by 40,000 French troops. This military occupation, indeed, was to cease at the end of six months: but there was every probability, that the term would be extended.

The presence of French troops was, in some respects, an alleviation of the miseries of Spain; since it imposed a check on the fury of the fanatics, who were now in full possession of power. Don Victor Saez, who had long been confessor of the king, acted as minister

of foreign affairs under the regency of Madrid, and when that regency was dissolved, upon the arrival of Ferdinand at the French headquarters, he was continued in his office and placed at the head of the ministry. The measures, which were adopted, were well suited to this choice. On the same day, the 1st of October, Ferdinand issued a decree, prefaced by a long invec tive against the constitutional system, and concluding with the two following articles:

"1. All the acts of the government called constitutional (of whatever kind and description they may be), a system which oppressed my people from the 7th of March, 1820, until the 1st of October, 1823, are declared null and void, declaring, as I now declare, that during the whole of that period I have been deprived of my liberty, obliged to sanction laws and authorize orders, decrees, and regulations, which the said government framed and executed, against my will.


2. I of approve every thing which has been decreed and ordered by the provisional junta of govern-ment, and by the regency, the one created at Oyarzun, April 9, the other May 26, in the present year, waiting, meanwhile, until, sufficiently informed as to the wants of my people, I may be able to bestow those laws, and adopt those -measures, which shall be best ealculated to secure their real prosperity and welfare, the constant obwishes." ject of all my

The spirit of his administration was displayed in a manner equally strong in a decree, dated on the 4th of October, and issued at Xeres. In it his majesty ordained, that, on his journey to the capital, no individual, who, during the existence of the system styled constituVOL. LXV.


tional, had been a deputy to the
Cortes in the two last legislative
sittings, should present himself, or
be within five leagues of the route
to Madrid. This prohibition was de-
clared to apply to the ministers,
councillors of state, the members of
the supreme tribunal of justice,
the commandants-general, political
chiefs, the persons employed in the
several departments of the secre
taries of state, and the chiefs and
officers of the late national volun-
teer militia, to whom his majesty
further interdicted for ever (para
siempre) entrance to the capital
and the royal residence, or approach
thereto within a circumference of
fifteen leagues.

There was an exception in fa-
vour of individuals, who, since the
entrance of the French army, had
obtained from the provisional junta
or the regency of the kingdom, a
new nomination to, or confirmation
of, the offices which they held by
his majesty's appointment previ-
ously to the 7th of March, 1820.

Under such circumstances, mul-
titudes of the constitutionalists
sought safety in flight. Of those
who remained, great numbers were
secretly and arbitrarily imprisoned;
and these acts of oppression would
have been carried to a still greater
height, if they had not been in some
degree prevented by the interfer-
ence of the French. The opera-
tion of this check is illustrated by
what occurred in Cadiz,
Latre, ex-constitutional command-
ant, and the duke del Parque,
were arrested by D'Aunoy the

On the same night,
count Bourmont, the French com-
mander, sent for the governor, and
"In vir-
asked him, by whose orders the ar-
rests had been executed.
tue of secret orders," was the reply.
"Let me see those orders," rejoined


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the French general. "No," answered the Spaniard. Then," added Bourmont, "if you repeat such arrests without shewing me a specific authority, signed by king Ferdinand, and if within two hours you do not send me a written justification of those already made, you shall take your departure from Cadiz." "I will execute my secret orders without your leave or knowledge," replied D'Aunoy, "and I will not quit Cadiz, unless forced." Forced he was accordingly: for, at four the next morning, a detachment of French grenadiers put the refractory governor beyond the gates of Cadiz.

Imprisonment was not deemed a punishment adequate to the guilt of Riego. He was condemned to death for his share in the proceedings of the Cortes at Seville; and, in pursuance of his sentence, was, on the 7th of November, hanged on a gibbet of extraordinary height. During the whole of his progress from the prison to the place of execution, the most profound silence reigned. The streets and squares were filled with immense crowds; and at the windows were seen, intermingled with the inhabitants, a great many monks and other ecclesiastics. The moment the executioner intimated, by a signal, that Riego was dead, cries of vivat were heard from a numerous group, which formed a semicircle at a small distance from the scaffold. Riego showed great

firmness and tranquillity in this last scene of his life; but it was with much difficulty he ascended the ladder, in consequence of the pain and swelling of his legs, occasioned by the fetters he had worn since his arrest.

On the 4th of December a surprising change was made in the cabinet council of Ferdinand. Saez and his colleagues were dismissed; and a new and more liberal ministry was framed, at the head of which was Casa Irujo, who had been ambassador from the Cortes to France. The department of grace and justice was intrusted to don Narciso de Heredia, a man of letters and of high personal cha racter. The other principal offices were filled by Lopez Ballasteros (& relation of the general of that name), de la Cruz, and Villela. Some ascribed the formation of this administration to the advice of France: but the more general opinion was, that it had its origin in the intrigues of Pozzo di Borgo, who was then at Madrid, and who, it was alleged, exerted the influence of Russia to promote the purposes of his own stock-jobbing speculations. Whatever might be the cause of the elevation of Casa Irujo, it produced no sensible alteration in the dark, revengeful, fraudulent, and most oppressive course of government, which Fer dinand had adopted and still continued to pursue.


PORTUGAL Relations of Portugal with Great Britain and FranceAmarante's insurrection: his progress: Rego's operations: Insurrection suppressed, and Amarante retreats into Spain-Arrests in Lisbon-Insurrection of the 23rd regiment-Prince Miguel's Flight from the Palace-The Rebels joined by most of the Troops-Complete success of the Counter-Revolution--Appointment of a new Ministry-Dissolution of the Cortes-Sir Robert Wilson in PortugalFrench Embassy-BRAZIL:-Complete separation of Brazil from Portugal-Hostile proceedings of Brazil towards Portugal-Internal Dissensions of Brazil-Resignation of the Andradas and their immediate restoration to Power-Meeting of the Congress-Secession of the Ministers from the Congress-Violent Discussions-Change of Ministry-Dissension between the Emperor and the Congress-Opposition of the Andradas to the Emperor-Violent proceedings of the Congress and of the Emperor-A new Ministry-The Emperor dissolves the Congress by Military force-Another change of MinistryConvocation of a new Legislative Assembly-Measures pursued against the leaders of the Opposition-Basis of a fundamental Law of the Monarchy proposed by the Emperor-This scheme approved by the municipality of the capital-General approbation of the proceedings of the Emperor-Catastrophe at Para-Military Operations at Bahia: Difficulties of Madeira's situation: his vigorous resistance: Evacuation of Bahia-Lord Cochrane's Operations-Monte Video-Arrival of Portuguese Commissioners at Rio de Janeiro: their dismissal Finances of Brazil.

DORTUGAL could not fail to

government, having solemnly de

PORTUGAL could not fces of Clared in the face of Europe, that

be France against Spain: and, under circumstances of such reasonable apprehension, her ministers thought it their duty to apply, towards the end of 1822, to the British cabinet, to ascertain, whether in case of a threatened invasion, she might depend on the alliance of Great Britain. The answer to this application was most satisfactory, and was communicated to the Cortes, in a report dated the 28th of December. "The ministry of England," said Ferreira, who was at the head of the foreign department, “has just replied.—That the British

it does not presume to attribute to itself a right to interfere in the internal affairs of other states, considers itself bound to give to this kingdom every succour of which it may stand in need, should its independence appear to be threatened in any mode or by any power whatever. But this promise," continued he, "which is nothing more than a repetition of those, which have in other times and at different epochs been made to us, has no reference, nor can be understood to have any, to our political institutions, as they have in no way

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