H́nh ảnh trang


foreign powers, or which contain-
ed the least criticism on acts ema-
nating from another state of the
confederation. Prohibitions were
issued relative to the associations
of students in the Universities
of Erlangen, Landshut, and Wartz-
burg, and the extraordinary com-
missioners in those Universities
were enjoined to exercise the
greatest vigilance in this respect.
These measures were taken in
consequence of communications
made by the ministers of Austria
and Prussia, and after a report of
Mr. Pfeffel, the Bavarian Minister
at the Diet, on the debates in a
secret sitting of that assembly.

Austria had the inclination to
carry her interference still further.
It was generally believed, that,
in the beginning of the year, she
made proposals, though without
success, to the courts of Munich
and Stutgard, to put an end to the
publicity of the debates in the
chambers of Bavaria and Wirtem-

It was not in Germany alone, that Austria was desirous of imposing shackles on the press she joined with France and Russia in issuing to the Swiss cantons recommendations, which had, as they were intended to have, the effect This interference of commands. took place early in the spring; its existence was known at first only by the rumours of which it was the subject, and the anxiety which it excited; but it soon manifested itself by effects, that could not be misunderstood. The representative bodies of the cantons were assembled before their usual time; secret deliberations were held; and extraordinary powers of fine and imprisonment were conferred on the council of state. One canton proceeded immediately to the enVOL. LXV,

tire suspension of the liberty of the press for two years. In June, the council of state issued two decrees -the one establishing a censorship of the press, or rather prohibiting the printing of any remarks on foreign politics, either directly or indirectly; the other, instituting se vere measures of police against These decrees were foreigners.*


* The following were the measures decreed by the Helvetic government with respect to foreigners:

[ocr errors]

"Art. 1. No foreigner shall fix his legal residence in any canton, unless he has previously obtained permission.

2. Every foreigner is obliged to give notice to the police within 24 hours after his arrival in the canton.

"3. Foreigners, who after their arrival in the canton shall desire to remain more than three weeks, shall apply to the director-general of police, at the Alien-office.

"4. Foreigners, who shall reside in the canton without being authorized, shall be sentenced to pay a fine of 500 forins, and to two months' imprisonment.

"5. Keepers of furnished hotels, innkeepers, and house-holders, who shall have lodged foreigners without permission, shall be liable to a fine of 1,000 florins, and to three months' imprisonment; in case of a repetition of the of The decree on the printing of fence, the penalty shall be doubled." litical writings comprises the following


[ocr errors]

"Article 1. No person shall sell, or cause to be printed, without the previous license of the council of state, works relative to foreign policy.

"2. This license shall not be given, till the MS. has been examined, to see

if it contains any thing reprehensible. In both cases, it must be signed by the author and the printer, and deposited in the chancery.

"3. The author, printer, or bookseller, who shall transgress this order, shall be brought before the tribunal, where they may be condemned to a fine of 1,000 florins, and a year's imprisonment. The penalty may be increased, according to the contents of the writing, as the seriousness of the circumstances may require."


preceded by an order to all French, Italian, and Piedmontese refugees, to quit the Swiss territory; including even those who had resided there with the permission of their respective governments, and had done so for 10 and 15 years. This order, which was strictly executed, did not result from the extraordinary powers granted to the council of state, but was an exercise of the authority conferred on that body by the constitution.

These proceedings, which were known to have been adopted in consequence of admonitions given by Austria in the name of the Holy Alliance, accompanied with lists of names transmitted from Vienna, made a deep impression in Switzerland. For though little account is made there of the liberty of the press, which, except in three or four cantons, can hardly be said to exist, the Swiss felt humbled at receiving dictation from a foreign power, and mortified at being forced to send away numbers of unfortunate foreigners, who were persecuted on all sides, and were without any place of refuge.

In July, the matters, which had excited the jealousy of the Holy Alliance, were brought under the consideration of the Swiss Diet, who appeared fully sensible of the necessity of acquiescing in whatever was demanded of them. A committee was appointed to consider the subject; and the report made by them was such as was better suited for an Austrian minister to receive, than for a Swiss patriot to adopt. They reported, that, if, on the one hand, the circumstances of the times afforded sufficient motives for adopting prudent and general measures of police with respect to the press and foreign refugees, yet on the other hand, none of the re

lations fixed by the federal compact should be violated, or the sovereign rights of the Helvetic states endangered; on this account a resolution of the Diet would not be advisable: it would be better to send a pressing invitation to all the cantons to adopt vigorous and satisfactory measures for preventing in newspapers, journals, pamphlets, and all kinds of periodical publications, every thing which might be contrary to the respect due to foreign powers, or might give them just grounds for complaint. With regard to the police superintendence of foreigners, they recommended that measures should be taken to prevent fugitives from entering or residing in Switzerland, who had left their country in consequence of their crimes, or of any interruption of the public tranquillity, or who, during a regularly authorized abode in Switzerland, should carry on intrigues against a friendly foreign power, or to trouble internal tranquillity; that the entrance of foreigners should depend on their possessing valid certificates from their recognized local authorities; which, in the case of those whose governments had ministers accredited to the confederation, should be recognized by those ministers. This proposal was unanimously approved.

Still, the Holy Alliance was not satisfied. In consequence of a conference of their ministers held at Parison the 31st of July, notes similar to each other were presented, on the 20th and 21st of August, to the Helvetic government, by the ministers and chargés d'affaires, residing at Berne, for the courts of Austria, Russia, Prussia, France, and Sardinia. The demand was, that about 200 refugees of various countries (many of whom had been long

dead!) should be expelled from Switzerland; and as the sovereigns would not allow them to reside either in their dominions or in Spain or Portugal, these victims of proscription were to receive passports for the United States of North America, to which they were to proceed by way of Ham burgh or Bremen. The French mi nister further required, that Switzerland should consent to arrest and deliver the deserters and refractory conscripts, who might take refuge in that country. In proportion as Switzerland was submissive, the despots of the continent rose in their demands and before the end of the year, they called upon her, not for restraints merely, but for the total suppression of the liberty of the press; for the banishment even of those foreigners, who had been naturalized in the cantons; and for the abolition of clubs and reading societies.

While Austria was thus busy in the affairs of her neighbours, her own provinces exhibit no event of any importance. She agreed to compound for the debt due from her to the English government by paying a small part of it; and provided funds for the purpose by contracting for a loan in London."

The emperor of Russia extended his hatred of secret societies, even beyond his own dominions: for he promulgated an ordinance, requiring all consuls and vice-consuls in his service, resident in foreign countries, either to resign their situations, or to withdraw from and to abjure all Free-masonry societies, with which they might have been previously connected.

Nothing decisive was yet known as to the course which Russia

meant to adopt, with respect to the celebrated ukase by which she usurped the whole of the more northern part of the western coast of America and the ocean intervening between it and the opposite shores of Asia. On the one hand, it was asserted, that a Russian frigate had driven away some American vessels, which had transgressed the appointed limits. On the other hand, the committee of the society of ship-owners in London, stated, that, having made application on the subject to his majesty's secretary of state, they had been informed, that representations had been made to the Russian government, and that, in consequence, orders had been sent out by the court of St. Petersburg to their naval commanders, calculated to prevent any collision between Russian ships and those of other nations, and, in effect, suspending the Ukase.

The present year cannot boast of the dangerous honour of a Congress, unless that name is to be given to the meeting between the emperors Francis and Alexander at Czernowitz. This interview took place in consequence of arrangements made between the two sovereigns, while they were at Inspruck, in the Tyrol, after the close of the Congress at Verona; and its sole object was, to confer on the affairs of Turkey. Francis arrived at Czernowitz on the 4th of October: on the evening of the 6th Alexander entered it: the latter departed on the 11th of the same month, and the former on the 13th. Prince Metternich was not present: under pretence of sickness, he remained at Lemberg, where he was visited by count Nesselrode.


SPAIN-Delivery of the French, Russian, Austrian and Prussian Notes at Madrid-Proceedings of the Cortes upon them-The Answers of the Spanish Government-The Russian, Austrian, and Prussian Ministers receive their passports—Address from the Cortes to the King-Proceedings in the Cortes after the communication of the speech of the King of France-Close of the Extraordinary Cortes-March of Bessieres and Ulman upon Madrid; their retreat; Ulman's inroad into Valencia-Ferdinand's refusal to concur in the transference of the Government from Madrid; the Ministers removed and restored on the same Day-Another change of Ministry -Opening of the Ordinary Cortes-Removal of the King and Cortes to Seville-Military Preparations-Commencement of the Campaign-French Refugees-St. Sebastian-March towards Madrid-Operations in Catalonia-Arrival of the French at Madrid -Convention with the French-Attempt of Bessieres on the CapitalEstablishment of a Regency at Madrid-Treachery_of_Abisbal— Proceedings of the Cortes at Seville-They appoint a Regency-The Removal of the King and Cortes to Cadiz-March of the French Troops, from Madrid into Andalusia-Cordova-Seville-Operations in the Asturias and Galicia: Defection of Morillo-Corunna— Operations in Valencia and Murcia: Defection of BallasterosRiego's expedition: his defeat, and capture-Operations in Catalonia-Arrival of the Duke of Angoulême before Cadiz: his correspondence with Ferdinand: The Trocadero taken: Negotiation attempted by the Cortes: Military operations: Ferdinand repairs to the head-quarters of the French-Surrender of the FortressesTermination of the Campaign-Course of Administration pursued by Ferdinand-Change in the Spanish Ministry.

On of next steadiness in resisting foreign ag

N the 5th of January, the note the most favourable hopes of their

was presented to the Spanish ministers; the notes of the courts of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, were delivered on the following day. These documents were, on the 7th, communicated to the Cortes in a secret sitting; and were received by that assembly, not merely with an unanimous expression of indignation, but with an air of temperate composure, calculated to excite


To mark at the same time their inclination to conciliate the friendship of England, a resolution was immediately passed for satisfying the claims of indemnification, which our minister had been urging at Madrid, in respect of losses occasioned to Englishmen by captures for pretended violation of blockade in the West Indies and the neigh

bouring seas. Spain admitted the claims generally, leaving their particular amount to be determined by future arrangements; and a sum of 40,000,000 of reals (400,000l.) was ordered to be inscribed in the great book, to answer them when adjusted.

On the 9th of January, San Miguel read, in an open sitting of the Cortes, the menacing communications from the four members of the Holy Alliance, together with his replies to them. These replies were in the form, the one, of a note addressed to the Spanish minister at Paris; the other, of a note addressed to the Spanish chargés d'affaires at Vienna, Berlin, and St. Petersburg [See Public Documents, 154* et seq.] These documents insisted on the right of Spain to manage her own affairs without regard to foreign interference, and on the inconsistency of the allied sovereigns in now assailing, with invective and threats of war, the very constitution which they had themselves acknowledged. The reading of the notes was listened to with unbounded applause, both from the members of the legislature and from the spectators in the galleries. Galiano, the head of the violently liberal party in the Cortes, then proposed an address to the king on the present situation of affairs: all voices were raised in favour of the suggestion. Arguelles, the leader of the moderate party, marched, in this instance, pari passú with Galiano; and a motion made by him, to ad

journ for eight-and-forty hours, that Europe might be convinced of the deliberate coolness by which the councils of the Spanish legis lature were directed, was at once approved. Arguelles was appointed a member of the committee of

Diplomacy, charged with the framing of the address; and Galiano bore testimony to his conviction-that, however they might differ on the details of the public service, Arguelles would, whenever the safety and dignity of the nation were at stake, be the foremost in defending them.

On the 10th, the Austrian, Russian, and Prussian ministers applied for passports; which were transmitted to them on the 11th, accompanied by three exceedingly laconic communications.**

On the 11th, Galiano presented to the Cortes the draught of an address to the king, signed by

*These notes were couched in the

following terms:

Prussian Minister.-"I have received Answer to the Note addressed by the the Note which your Excellency transmitted to me under the date of the 10th, and, contenting myself with stating in reply, that the wishes of the government of his most Catholic Majesty for the happiness of the Prussian States

are not less ardent than those manifested by his majesty the king of Prussia towards Spain, I transmit to your Excel

lency, by royal order, the passports for which you have applied."

Answer to the Russian Note.-" I have received the note which your excellency transmitted to me yesterday, the 10th instant, and, limiting myself, for my sole reply, to stating that you have shamefully abused (perhaps through ignorance) the law of nations, which is always respectable in the eyes of the Spanish government, I transmit, by order of his Majesty, the passports you desire, hoping that your excellency will be pleased to leave this capital with as little delay as possible."

Answer to the Austrian Note.-"I have received the note which your

excellency was pleased to remit to me, dated yesterday, the 10th, and having now only to say, that the government of his Catholic Majesty is indifferent whether it maintains relations or not with the court of Vienna, I send you,

by royal order, the passports which you have required.”

« TrướcTiếp tục »