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sidered at first to be without motive, and therefore the more unnatural; but it was at last discovered, that the deceased had a watch, which she concealed in the straw of her bed, and which might have been the inducement of the criminals. The mother, Lecouffe, was first arrested, under circumstances of strong suspicion. During the time that the Judge d'Instruction was examining witnesses against her, the son came forward, and avowed himself the murderer. The account which he gave, both of his motives for committing the crime and his reasons for confessing it, were of the most singular kind. He told the Judge d'Instruction, that he wanted to marry, but could not find money to pay the expenses of his noce, or wedding; and that having heard of the old beggar's possessing the requisite sum in property or coin, he had taken away her life to get possession of it. He had then married, but soon began to repent of the assassination. His first idea, he said, was to expiate his crime by suicide; and having heard that brandy, taken in sufficient quantity, would produce death, he had bought a bottle as a certain poison. Having, however, drank two glasses of this mortal liquor, he found that he was the less disposed to die, and therefore postponed the consummation of the process to the following day. In the night-time, the shade of his father, his own guardian angel, and two other angels, with whose physiognomy he was unacquainted, appeared before him, and enjoined him to confess his guilt. He therefore proceeded to the Judge d'Instruction, whom these messengers pointed out, and who happened to be the same person who was drawing up the evidence against his mother. The
judge issued an order for his arrest, on the disclosure of facts stated by himself. The young man denied afterwards the crime, and declared that he made a false confession, to induce the judge to release his mother. However, additional evidence was collected: and the result of the trial was, that the son was declared guilty of the murder and robbery, and the mother, though acquitted of the assassination, was convicted of having concealed the articles stolen, with knowledge of the murder. Both the prisoners were condemned to death.*
In the budget for the year 18223, the sum of 29,520,003 francs was set apart by the government for the maintenance of the French clergy. In addition to this, the communes voted 6,407,727, and the councils of the department 1,162,618 francs; so that the total of the funds appropriated to the
In the course of this trial, M. Dubois, an eminent physician, was called upon to say whether he observed in the prisoner Lecouffe any appearance of mental alienation. In vain did the physician protest that he saw no mark of derangement; the counsel for the priSouer, with the consent of the president, insisted upon the head of his client being examined. The doctor felt the murderer's head, which was perhaps destitute of Spurzheim's protuberances -but, after groping all over and round about it, he solemnly declared that he could discover nothing remarkable in the prisoner's skull. The following dialogue succeeded to this examination :
The President." What is the result of your examination ?"
M. Dubois.-" The cranium of the dicates no kind of alienation." accused presents no deformity, and in
Prisoner's Counsel.-" Can you say, that the accused never has experienced mental alienation?"
have when young-before the bones of M. Dubois." It is possible he may the head joined; but at present there is no kind of deformity ?"
clergy amounted to 37,089,745 francs, or about 1,483,5891. sterling. The aggregate number of the actual clergy was 35,676: The number of candidates for holy orders, in the seminaries, and in the Theological colleges, was 29,379.
It would appear, that France was availing herself of the skill of our artisans. At the iron-works of Charenton, two hundred Eng
lishmen were said to be employed; and new works for rolling iron were begun to be built by some of our countrymen on the banks of the Seine near Paris. Two iron steam boats plied regularly from Havre to the metropolis; and in several large cotton factories, the majority of the workmen were ob◄ tained from Scotland or England.
NETHERLANDS Suppression of Roman Catholic Societies; Restrictions on Commerce with France; Session of the States General ; Plans of Improvement: Military operations in Sumatra-DENMARK-SWEDEN: Measures of the Diet; Tenor of the King's speech on the Dissolution of it-BADEN-WEIMAR-HESSE CASSEL -PRUSSIA: Establishment of Provincial Assemblies: Prosecutions against Secret Associations: Restraints on the Press-WIRTEMBERG: Proceedings of the Diet against the German Observer : Refusal of Wirtemberg to concur in the approval by the Diet of the Proceedings of the Congress of Verona-BAVARIA: Measures taken at the recommendation of Austria-SWITZERLAND: Measures adopted at the Command of France and the Holy Alliance, against personal liberty and the Press: Swiss Diet: further Demands of the Holy Alliance-AUSTRIA-Russian ordinances against FreeMasons-Meeting of the Emperors of Austria and Russia at Czernowitz.
N the beginning of the year, some trifling disturbances took place in the grand duchy of Luxemburg. Subsequently the government of the Netherlands issued a decree for the suppression of two Roman Catholic Societies. One was called "The Catholic Society of Belgium," and had its principal establishment at Brussels; the other, which took the more general title of "The Roman Catholic Society," had its chief seat at Utrecht. The ground for suppressing them was stated in the preamble of the decree to be" because they were formed without the knowledge and consent of the government, and because they had shown themselves, by divers circumstances, to be in stitutions, the further existence of which would influence the public tranquillity in a manner the extent of which could not be foreseen."
The government of the Netherlands took no open part in the
political measures of their neigh bours: they were wholly occupied with plans of internal improvement, and commercial regulation. Of the latter the most important was a decree, dated the 20th of August, regulating commercial intercourse with France. For the purpose of retaliating upon that country her own narrow prohibitory system, it augmented the duties on some of her productions, and forbade or fettered the importation of others of them. This
The following were the heads of this decree :
Art. 1. The following articles, so far as they are of French origin or imported from France into our kingdom, shall be liable to the following import duties:Porcelain, white or painted, per 100lb., 30fr.; china of all kinds, 20fr.; earthenware, 15 per cent.; stockings, caps, mittens, and other articles of wearing apparel, of cotton, wool, or thread, either knit or wove, 20 per cent.; per 1,000, 3f.
2. The following articles of French
measure was not adopted, till after repeated representations on the subject had been made to the king by the chamber of commerce, and the provincial assemblies, and till after all his majesty's endeavours to conclude an amicable arrangement with France, had failed.
On the 20th of October, the session of the States-general was opened at the Hague; and it was remarked, that none of the foreign ministers, except lord Clancarty, were present at that ceremony. The speech from the throne contained not the slightest allusion to the affairs of Spain and Portugal, and breathed in every sentence a mild and liberal spirit; "Every Netherlander," said his majesty, "who looks round him without prejudice, gratefully remarks the advantages which are enjoyed in his free and hospitable country.
"This year" continued he, "is no less distinguished than the last by a productive harvest. An accurate investigation of the interests of the farmers, combined with those of the consumers, has convinced me, that the interference of the law is not required. In the province of Groningen, a society of farmers is forming, with a view to found a system of credit on the land and its produce. The object is to obtain, at moderate interest, 'ready money, which they can repay in the sequel without embarrass
origin, or imported from France, are prohibited:
Glasses and glassware of all kinds, except looking-glasses; cloths and kerseymeres, muriatic acid, nitric acid, vitriolic acid, and brandy distilled from grain.
3. The following articles coming from
France shall not be imported, except by
ment. If this trial succeeds, other provinces will doubtless follow the example, and the difficulties, to which many farmers were exposed, particularly last year, will be prevented for the future.
"The low price of provisions favours all the undertakings of the national industry; but the greater the fertility of the soil, and the activity of the people, the more care is necessary to obtain a regular exportation, which enlivens trade and navigation, and multiplies our relations with foreign countries.
"The conviction of this truth caused a measure to be adopted in one of the laws last session, to give energy to our negotiations with foreign powers on those important subjects. These could not, from their nature, be otherwise than slow in their progress. Some of them are already in such a state, that we may hope for a favourable result."
In allusion to the decree of the 20th of August, he added "I have hitherto been only once obliged to adopt reciprocal measures to hinder or to limit the importation of foreign productions. It is with regret that I have in this instance deviated from our liberal principles. I shall be happy, if it should promote the revival of those principles in others, and thus be of short duration.”
From some of the schemes for internal improvement, which were discussed and approved by the States-general, it would appear, that, in that legislature, as in some others, there was more zeal for the public welfare than wisdom in contributing to it. One of these schemes, which occupied a considerable share of attention, and was warmly received, was a law for exempting from land-tax, during fifteen years, certain buildings
erected by the Benevolent Soci eties of the Hague and Brussels. The objects of the establishment, which were to be thus encouraged were two-fold-1st, to promote the cultivation of waste and barren lands; and 2nd, to find useful employment for a large number of destitute poor. The Dutch and Belgian legislators will soon find, that neither the state nor associations can cultivate, with advantage, lands, upon which individuals do not think it prudent to expend their capital, or can supply profitable employment to those, whose industry no private capital ist is willing to call into exertion. In the present year, as in the preceding, some trifling military operations were carried on in Su matra. These had their origin in some dissensions as to religious opinions, which, so long ago as 1819, broke out on the west coast of that island, between the natives of the upper districts of Padang. In consequence of these quarrels, some chiefs of the kingdom of Manangkabang concluded with the Dutch resident at Padang a convention by which they ceded their provinces to the government of the Netherlands, on condition that the inhabitants of those countries should be protected from the attacks of their turbulent neighbours called Padries. The ceded districts were occupied; and, as the Pad ries continued hostilities, measures were taken in April, 1821, to endeavour to drive them from their villages, situated in the neighbour hood of the Dutch colony of Samawang.
They had assembled to the number of 20,000 men in the environs of that establishment, but lieutenant-colonel Raaff at the head of 500 regular troops, and 13,000
Malays, defeated them in seve ral encounters. In July, 1822, the Malays abandoned him: so that he was forced to suspend any further attack, till he should receive fresh reinforcements. On the 14th of April, in the present year, he advanced to the frontiers of Linto, and made a general attack, which failed, in consequence of the difficulties of the ground and the arrangements adopted by the enemy. His troops were compelled to retreat, with the loss of four pieces of cannon, 21 killed, and 139 wounded, among whom were several officers. However, in the beginning of May, the Padries were repulsed at Pakadan, and finally retired from those parts; so that, in the middle of the year, all was tranquil in the districts of Priaman and Toejoekotta.
When the war with Spain broke out, the king of Denmark published an edict prohibiting all privateers of whatever nation from entering the ports or seas of that kingdom; except in case of evident danger from bad weather, or to avoid the pursuit of an enemy. No privateer was per mitted to send prizes to Denmark, or sell them there. Privateers, forced to enter Danish ports, were not to unload, or sell their cargoes, either wholly or in part; Danish subjects, were forbidden, under the severest penalties, to purchase the prizes of foreign privateers. Ships of war, entering the Danish ports, might bring their prizes with them, but were to take them away again; being in the same manner prohibited from unloading them, or selling them or their cargoes, either wholly or in part.
In one part of the Danish do minions, discontent appeared in a very unequivocal shape. The