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it of a suffieient thicknefs on the outside. being thus prepared, let a little of the brick paste, duly mixed, be rammed firmly into all the interstices between the pieces of wood; when this has been suffered to dry a little, let some more be rammed firm above that, and so on till the whole cavity of the mould is filled to the top; taking care, at each time any fresh paste is added, to turn each of the cylinders in the heart, by means of a handle fixed to the top, once round, to keep them free. When the whole is so dry as to be in no danger of sinking by its own weight, let each of the cylindrical rods be gently drawn out, to allow it to dry; and after a due time the hoops may be knocked from the frame, and the pieces of it taken away, so as to allow that part of the column to remain by itself in a proper condition for being burned; and if a number of these pieces were formed as close to one another as might be, a frame of bricks could be raised round them, so as to permit them to be burned in the very place where they were formed, without being touched till they were converted into stone.

Many are the advantages that would result from these perforations. In the first place, by making so many internal surfaces, the contraction that must necefsarily take place in drying, would be much lefs sensible on the external surface than it otherwise would have been. Secondly, the whole mafs would be allowed to dry much more quickly and more perfectly than it could have done if it had consisted of one uniform solid body. Thirdly, it could be much more easily and more perfectly burned; for

if all these cavities were filled with fuel, the internal parts of the column would be as perfectly burnt as the external parts of it. And, lastly, a great quantity of materials would be saved, and the column would be so much diminished in weight, as to be not only much more easily manageable by the workmen, but much lighter for the foundation on which it stands, than it otherwise could have been*.

It will perhaps be imagined that these cavities would render the column much weaker than it otherwise would have been; but every mathematician in the kingdom can easily demonstrate, that the strength would hardly be at all diminished from this cause. A reed of corn, which is entirely hollow, is but very little weaker than the same reed would have been if it had been entirely solid; but the several connecting rings, that unite every part of this column firmly to another, give it a degree of strength much greater than one hollow cylinder, of the same diameter, without these, would have been.

To give the column a still greater degree of firmness, than a stone column of the same size would have had, let some cylindrical pieces of brick be formed, of the same diameter with the cavities in the column, and let three of these be placed in three of the cavities, at different parts of the column, so as to have their upper ends about a foot above the the surface of the section of the column; which upper ends fhould be received into the three corres

*I fhall have occasion to fhow hereafter, how many other useful purposes might be attained in architecture, that could not be accomplis.ed by any other contrivance hitherto adopted.

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March 20. ponding cavities in that cut of the column, that was to be placed upon it, so as to keep the joint immoveably firm. The advantages that would accrue from this contrivance are so obvious as to need no illustration. Where a column was so circumstanced, as that weight was necefsary for giving it stability, that also could easily be effected at a small expence, merely by filling all the inside cavities with sand, or other matter, as the layers of the column were succefsively placed above each other.

The inside of such a column might be formed of strong coarse materials, although a thin coating of the finest kind of clay might be applied to the outside all round, so as to give it that beauty which is always so agreeable to the eye, at a very small expence. And if bafsa relievoes, or other very fine mouldings, were wanted, they could be formed with ease by the artist after the frame was removed, while yet the matter remained soft and ductile.

After the same manner might bricks be formed for walls, of any size or shape that might be wanted, so as to form the wall entirely, from top to bottom, of layers of stones, above one another, every where the thickness of the wall; every stone binding those below it, and securing their joints by means of pegs. inserted in them, in different directions, so as to render it impofsible to tear out any one stone without bringing others along with it.

It is unnecefsary to add, that ornaments of any kind, mouldings, architraves, bas reliefs, &c. could be thus formed on these stones with the utmost facility*.

*The above was written many years ago, and the reasoning contained in it, has been practically confirmed by some experiments lately made by

I

ON THE REVENUE LAWS.

For

HAVE already, through the medium of the Bee, laid before the public some observations on the effects of very high duties on foreign commodities, in the production of smuggling, and its consequent evils, of diminishing the prosperity of the subject, and the amount of the revenue of government; and the importance of the subject, not only to the speculative philosopher, but also to almost every clafs of individuals in this island, will I hope apologise for a few additional animadversions on taxations, in which a different branch of the revenue laws will come under consideration.

The excise laws have, for these few years past, excited the most general difsatisfaction throughout Great Britain, but particularly Scotland. The principal causes of these just murmurs arise from the two following evils. The inconvenience occasioned to people in businefs by the many and complicated regulations that are imposed, in order to enforce payment of the duties; and the smuggling consequent on the magnitude of the taxes.

lord Dundonald, who, without any previous communication with the author, had devised the very same mode of forming an indestructable kind of brick, by means of the very fine clay he has lately discovered at Culrofs. A kind of clay, which, on account of its great purity, and the absence of metallic impregnation, is perhaps better fitted for this purpose, and other works of fine pottery, than any other in Great Britain; and on account of the singularity of its situation, so very near a sea port can scarcely fail to become in time an object of great utility to the couptry, as well as to be highly beneficial to the proprietor,

March 20. Many of the regulations to which retailers of excised commodities, and manufacturers, are subjected, cannot, in the nature of things, be complied with. For example, a grocer is obliged, by law, to insert in a book every pound of tea he sells; to the veracity of which book, he must make oath within a stated period. Every one knows that a grocer cannot, without devoting a very great portion of his time to it, make up such a book; and the consequence is, that he puts down his tea now and then, from his memory, in the best way he can, without being able to comply with the statute. The same thing takes place with a reta ler of wine, and several other articles that are under the excise. An excise officer may, at any time he pleases, without the smallest controul, oblige a tea dealer or a tobacconist to weigh over all his stock, however considerable; and if any inaccuracy takes place, either in the books kept by the dealer, or in the account taken at weighing, so as to occasion a difference betwixt the actual stock on hand, and what appears in the books of the officer, the party not only forfeits a quantity of the goods, equal to the difference, but is also liable in a considerable penalty, which he is condemned to pay, by a set of justices of the peace, without either jury or power of appeal. Hence it is very evident, that a rascal of an excise officer, (and many of them certainly are rascals,) on taking a spite at any man in businefs, may, without the smallest dread of punishment, curb his operations in trade to such a degree as to hurt him very materially. And moreover, in spite of all his care and endeavours to

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