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243 attended with amusement, but may eventually be productive of advantage to science, and particularly to the art of agriculture. Trees, fhrubs, and flowers are good thermometers. Mr Boyle can contrive no better for directing the labours of the farmer, or the undertakings of the traveller *.

*This remark is worthy of attention and diffusion. I shall here set down for the instruction and amusement of the readers of the Bee, a state of remarkably early vegetation, accurately reported by a gardener in Fife, March 31. 1779, the authenticity of which may be depended upon, and it may be compared with the latenefs of the present season and that of others still more backward.

March 31. Plumbs beginning to set, flourish to fall off. The leaf spred, and within a quarter of its full size. It was in full flower on the 8th of March. Upon the same wall apricot fruit set, and of the size of an ordinary grown currant. Growth of this year's fhoots full three


Nectarines in full flower, and the flowers beginning to drop off. Rasps in full leaf, and this year's fhoots sprung full seven inches. Rheum palmatum, or true rhubarb, in full leaf. The principal stem sprung fifteen inches and an half.

Young hops sprung two feet seven inches. Bees busy carrying on work, and have done so since the beginning of March. Roses and sweet briar in full leaf.

Sycamore well leafed and spread, burst on the 15th of March.

March 31. Seed flowers of the elm fully out, and turning brown. They were in full flower March 8th.

Leaf buds breaking and expanding on the lower branches.

Birch in full leaf. Their buds began to break, and their leaves to appear on the 20th of March.

The horse chesnut in leaf, and the flowers well advanced, but not opened. Growth of the young shoots three inches and an half. Walnuts beginning to show their leaves.

Lilly of the valley nearly full blown.

White Narcissus in full flower, observed to be flowered on the 30th of March.

New England pines, spring's shoots one-fourth of an inch.

I may perhaps send you, my dear girls, the graduations of this new thermometer in my next.


I now sped my way homeward, under freshest and finest foliage, exhilerated by the sing

Black spruce and the white one half of an inch. Balm of Gilead fir, three eighths of an inch. Mountain ash in full leaf, and sprung four inches. Hawthorn in full leaf, and green since March 15. March 31, flowers formed, but not fully blown. Evergreen oak, acorns formed, and as large as Jamaica pepper corns.

Laurel bay flower beginning to open.

The leaf buds of the lime trees large and beginning to open, some of the lower branches green with the new leaf.

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The winter of 1778-79 was mild in Scotland, beyond all recorded example, and was proportionably favourable to the aged and infirm, few of such died at Edinburgh during the course of that winter. On the last day of the year 1778 there was a violent hurricane at Edinburgh, and a still greater on the 13th of January following, when a stack of wood preparing for the hall of the college of physicians was blown about St Andrew's square, at one o'clock in the afternoon, like the fhavings of a carpenter's yard, and one of the battens was driven through the cross lights in a corner house like a javelin!

Additional information respectin this singular season by the Editor. The whole of the winter 1778-79 was so remarkably mild, that there was not even an air of frost that could hurt even the most tender vegetables that grow in this climate. Pease, beans, and other vegetables, the seeds of which were shed in autumn, sprung up and grew without a check during winter; and in the month of February, in fields of wheat that had been sown after beans, the beans were seen standing thick among the wheat in full blossom. Gooseberries were so forward, that during the month of April many of them had been pulled for tarts; as they had by that time attained the size they usually reach in June; and garden pease were in many places in full blofsom in April.

No frost was experienced till the night between the 2d and 3d of May, when it froze so keenly as to produce many disastrous effects. The writer of this article had at that time some pease in full blossom;

245 ing of birds, and the bleating of the flocks, when suddenly I spied a fhepherd coaxing an ewe to receive and suckle a lamb that seemed to be a stranger. I accosted him, and he told me that was actually the case, and that the lamb in question had an unlucky dam, that could give no milk, while the ewe had lost her darling by the fox on the night preceding.

I saw him rub the lamb across her teats before he presented it to suckle, and then the ewe received and entertained it as her own, being deceived by the smell. A little farther on I heard a long descant on a cow that had had three calves at a birth, and was amply suckling them all. They were all females, otherwise I fhould have inquired for a free marten of a new description between two bulls, of which I never knew an instance. The season is nowise remarkable as to its forwardnefs on this 14th of April, a day interesting to you and your family by the birth of your mother.

Last night I heard the nightingale, however, for the first time. It is not indeed long since we have

but to his great mortification, when he went into the garden on the morning of Sunday the 3d of May, he found them all lying flat to the ground, as if they had been cut over by a scythe; and not one of them survived it. The gooseberries, unless where the bushes where accidentally screened by clothes or mats spread over them, were all thrown to the ground, quite wallowed. The hawthorn hedges, which were then in full leaf, were all scorched as if they had been put into the fire. The grafs was destroyed, and almost every green thing withered: but as it came fine weather afterwards they soon regained their wonted vigour. The summer that followed was remarkably warm; and the effects of the frost, unless upon the fruit, were soon forgotten.

April 175 had that bird in this neighbourhood, and we owe it I imagine to the contiguous cultivation that connects us with the south.

It is a strange theory to deem the nightingale a bird of passage, when we have all the other wagtail tribe for the winter. The nightingale is local, and concealed by the modesty of its plumage; it goes, like other creatures, where it meets with fhelter and good entertainment.

I am now preparing for my fete on the birth day of Aurelia, which is on the 21st. It shall be in the hall of ancient virtue, and there fhall be a concert. I will then in secret pour out libations to Jupiter, the deliverer and avenger of wrongs ;but enjoy the present.

I have sent you a puzzle for Mr Matho when you see the Mifs Woodfords, in an inscription which is placed in my hall, under the statue of Helvidius Priscus, which with the aid of his famous Lexicon, he may be able to explain.

Deo optumo maxumo, omnipotenti,
Benevolenti, omnium bonorum deliciæ,
Flagitii et stellionis latentifsimi ultori,
Libertatis vindici, orbis terrarum
Et naturæ universæ patri et amico,
Stultis filiis superstitionis ignoto,
Rationis luci, sapientibus et probis
Hominibus noto, perspicuo, et carifsimo.

The above is exactly copied without correction or alteration of any





Continued from p. 99.


It is about one hundred and thirty miles from Rome to Capua, and near twenty more from that to Naples. I have taken up my residence at a delightful village about half way betwixt them, where my stay will be determined as it was at Geneva. Abbe Raynal on my first tour asked how long I was to stay there, I said that I did not know how long, but I would stay till I was weary of the place, "'Tis the best rule in life," said he. He could only mean that it was a very good one.

I might swell this article to a great length, by telling you that this country, famous for its pastures, derives its name from the Greek word Italos, signifying an ox, by mentioning its divisions and subdivisions; its ancient inhabitants the Aborigines, Pelasgi, Rutuli, &c. and matters of that sort; but I don't mean any thing of the kind. 'Tis my journey and opinions that I write, and not the ancient history or the present state of the countries through which I pafs.


I always smile when I hear one pretend to despise or ridicule accomplishments he does not pofsefs. There is a gentleman here who plays well on the violin; he laughs at his friend, and says he is a pedant, because he understands Greek and Latin well

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