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cultivate it is confined within narrow bounds; and, unlefs a language be fixed by determinate laws, it will always be of small repute. Great writers raise the reputation of a language; and, to admit of fine writing, it is necefsary that the language be already formed. Such is the object of the great work of which I this day lay the foundation. It is you, gentlemen, that I have chosen to give a consistency to the Swedish language, and to bring to perfection my enterprise.


Knowledge, genius, and taste are requisite here; they are all equally necessary, though they are rarely found united. It was, therefore, necefsary to form an association of different persons, some of whom, ardent in the pursuit of polite literature, have given free scope to their inclination, and have made it the chief object of their studies; others, by the extent of their erudition, have fixed their judgement by principles founded on the authority of nations and the course of ages; others, formed in businefs, and in the best company, have refined their perception, by the circumspection which exalted stations require, and that continual change of company which their employment hath brought them into; circumstances which require prudence in discourse, and that choice of words, which forms the delicacy of taste, which gives to each word its true meaning, and prescribes limits to its signification.

"If a society so formed, can answer the end which I propose, I ought to expect every thing from this of which I this day confirm the institution.

At its commencement, it already pofsefses mem→ bers meriting universal suffrage. To the glory of my kingdom, I see here an afsembly of men who do as much honour to the Swedish language, as they merit one day to be celebrated by it. Gentlemen, I anticipate the judgement of that posterity for whose benefit you are now going to labour. It views merit with a sure eye that neither can be blinded by the false glare of flattery, nor by the fhades of obloquy, with which partial criticism sometimes covers the living." After having given his merited eulogium to each member of the academy, the king proceeds: "To honour the memory of great men, is to call upon posterity to imitate them. That is to say, warriors, statesmen, citizens, you who have inherited the names of those heroes, or you who occupy their places, behold the tribute that gratitude decrees to their memory; merit, if you can, like eulogiums. Your names are to appear before the tribunal of ages Take care not to degenerate. It depends upon yourselves to render your names equally illustrious."


Extract from the speech of his excellency the Count de Hoepken to the academy.

"From the king's speech, and the statutes just now read, we learn the intentions of his majesty, and the aim of the institution of this academy, viz. the culture of our language, and the refinement of taste; objects truly worthy of the attention of the monarch, and all the cares of the academy. With respect to the purity of the language, I think that

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it is not necefsary always to trace it in the most
ancient writings, nor to affect to recall words an-
tiquated and out of use.
It is not in our power
to create another language than the one used by
the people quem penes arbitrium est, et jus, et norma
loquendi. We can only regulate and improve it.
All languages soften. along with the manners, di-
vesting themselves by degrees of their original and
savage harshnefs, without deviating much from
the original import of the words.

"If one of the principal endowments of the mind consists in facility of invention, that of the heart consists of lively sensations, imparting fire and quickness to the productions of thought. Whoever is not endowed with this last quality, would do well to study the language of the ladies. From their delicacy arise all those fhades of exprefsion which are peculiar to them, all those lively and brilliant images which depend on their exquisite sensibility."

Extract from the speech of the Count of Hermanson, senator of Sweden.

"If the sciences and polite literature have not in Sweden an æra so remote as in some other countries, they have, in lefs time, made a more rapid progrefs. Our country is at this day in possession of several pieces of eloquence, that would have done honour to Athens and Rome. The preşence of their authors prevents me from saying more. This institution enjoys a worthy patronage; that of a king, who unites the hearts of all his subjects, as he unites the voices in this so

Jan. 11. ciety, without using any other influence than that of persuasion and of truth. It is this great founder, gentlemen, who judges of your talents, and has collected them here; as for me, my age will not permit me long to participate your labours, and I cannot flatter myself that I fhall be regretted. These meetings will always be illustrious by your knowledge and talents, when I fhall be forgotten."

Extract from the speech of the Count de Fersen, senator and field marshal of Sweden.

"Sweden having always preserved its independence, and never having been subject to those revolutions which change the manners and the language of a nation, it is astonishing that the Swedifh language has undergone so great changes. Among several causes that might contribute to it, the principal, perhaps, has been the introduction of arts and sciences by foreigners, who, being little acquainted with the resources of the language, to exprefs their ideas, have introduced words and phrases, borrowed from other languages, and corrupted the primitive nature of that of the country. It has pleased the king, always attentive to the glory of the nation, and eager to augment the love and esteem of the Swedes for their country, to give us the privilege to extend even to its language the predilection that our country merits in so many other respects. In the institution of this academy, the king hath devised the surest means to attain the end he had proposed; and the happy choice of the members ought to afsure him of succefs. As to me, the honour of belonging to your

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society, gentlemen, is only the effect of the gracious confidence of the king, who supposes me to pofsefs abilities which I could desire to have, but which I must own I have not. The different offices that I have been called to fill, demand abilities of a kind quite different from those which this place requires: But if this consideration prevents me, gentlemen, from sharing the honour which belongs to you alone, I wish to say, that in accomplishing the work entrusted to our care, I fhare, nevertheless, with all my cotemporaries, and with all the Swedes yet unborn; the respectful and profound gratitude to which his majesty is entitled, by new rights, in consequence of an institution, which, of necefsity, ought to augment our esteem for ourselves, since its members shall celebrate, in our own language, with becoming energy, the glorious exploits of the kings of Sweden, and the fidelity and bravery of the Swedish people. But when posterity fhall read, in the works of this academy, that this kingdom was re-established by Gustavus I. that its independence, its settlement, and glory, are the works of Gustavus Adolphus, the extent of its frontiers, that of Charles x. it fhall still respect the virtues of Gustavus III. who has had the magnanimity to restore liberty to his nation when it had already lost it.

To the Editor of the Bee.


As a contrast to the prices of Mr Fowler's

cattle, and at the same time a specimen of the spirit

VOL. vii.


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