Elements of Mental Philosophy Enbracing the Two Departments of the Intellect and the Sensibilities, Tập 1

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Harper & Brothers, 1841
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Matter and mind have uniform and fixed laws
27
This primary truth not founded on reasoning 27
28
Section
31
No exact correspondence between the mental and bodily state
34
Evidence of this want of exact correspondence
35
Comparative state of the mind and body in dreaming
36
The great works of genius an evidence of immateriality
37
The doctrine of materiality inconsistent with future existence
39
LAWS OF BELIEF CHAP IV GENERAL CLASSIFICATION 30 The mind may be regarded in a threefold point of view 31 Evidence of the general ...
41
Memory and testimony considered as sources of belief
42
Objection to reliance on testimony
44
Of relative suggestion as a ground of belief
45
Of reasoning as a ground or law of belief 44 45
46
30
47
31
48
33
50
34
53
35
55
DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND PART FIRST THE ...
56
36
59
37
60
Our first knowledge in general of a material or external origin
62
39
64
The same subject further illustrated
65
Subject illustrated from the case of James Mitchell
66
Illustration from the case of Caspar Hauser
67
Of connatural or innate knowledge
69
The doctrine of innate knowledge not susceptible of proof
70
The doctrine tried by the idea of a
71
The discussion of this subject superseded and unnecessary
73
47
74
Evidence of the same from the terms found in different languages 50
76
50
78
The connexion between the mental and physical change not sus ceptible of explanation 52 Of the meaning and nature of perception
80
Of the primary and secondary qualities of matter
81
Of the secondary qualities of matter
82
Of the nature of mental powers or faculties
83
THE SENSES OF SMELL AND TASTE 56 Nature and importance of the senses as a source of knowledge
84
Of the connexion of the brain with sensation and perception
85
Order in which the senses are to be considered
86
Of the sense and sensation of smell 60 Of perceptions of smell in distinction from sensations 61 Of the sense and sensation of taste
87
Design and uses of the senses of smell and taste
89
THE SENSE OF HEARING
90
of sound
91
Varieties of the sensation of sound
92
Manner in which we learn the place of sounds
93
Application of these views to the art of ventriloquism
94
Uses of hearing and its connexion with oral language
96
THE SENSE OF TOUCH 69 Of the sense of touch and its sensations in general
97
Idea of externality suggested in connexion with the touch
98
ORIGINAL SUGGESTION
99
Of certain indefinite feelings sometimes ascribed to the touch
103
75 Relation between the sensation and what is outwardly signified
104
76
105
Statement of the mode or process in visual perception
106
Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight
107
The idea of extension not originally from sight
108
80
109
81
111
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112
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114
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86
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Of conceptions attended with a momentary belief
119
Conceptions which are joined with perceptions
120
Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations CHAP XI SIMPLICITY AND COMPLEXNESS OF MENTAL STATES
121
87
122
89
123
Simple mental states not susceptible of definition
124
90
125
Origin of complex notions and their relation to simple
126
91
127
Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings 172
128
92
129
93
130
94
131
Doctrine of the non existence of matter considered
132
96
133
97
134
Instances of particular abstract ideas
135
Mental process in separating and abstracting them
136
f generalizations of particular abstract mental states
137
Of the importance and uses of abstraction
138
Application of habit to the touch
143
Other striking instances of habits of touch
146
Habits considered in relation to the sight
147
Of different opinions formerly prevailing 131 Of objects contemplated as wholes 132 Something more in external objects than mere attributes or qua...
148
Sensations may possess a relative as well as positive increase
149
Of habits as modified by particular callings or arts
150
The law of habit considered in reference to the perception of the outlines and forms of objects
151
Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine 110 Additional illustrations of Mr Stewarts doctrine
152
Of the general nature of attention
153
Of different degrees of attention
154
Dependance of memory on attention
155
Of exercising attention in reading
156
Alleged inability to command the attention CHAP XVDREAMING
157
Definition of dreams and the prevalence of them
158
Connexion of dreams with our waking thoughts
159
Dreams are often caused by our sensations
160
Page
161
165
163
Apparent reality of dreams 2d cause
164
Of our estimate of time in dreaming
165
Import of suggestion and its application in Reid and Stewart
177
Ideas of existence mind selfexistence and personal identity
178
Origin of the idea of externality
179
GENERAL ABSTRACT IDEAS
180
Origin of the idea of motion
181
Of the nature of unity and the origin of that notion
182
Nature of succession and origin of the idea of succession
183
Origin of the notion of duration
184
General abstract notions the same with genera and species 140 Process in classification or the forming of genera and species
185
Early classifications sometimes incorrect
186
Illustration of our earliest classifications
187
Of the nature of general abstract ideas 186 187
188
Objection sometimes made to the existence of general notions
190
The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers c
191
Of general abstract truths or principles 192
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PART SECOND THE INTERNAL OR SUGGESTIVE INTELLECT INTELLECTUAL STATES OF INTERNAL ORIGIN
219
INTERNAL ORIGIN OF KNOWLEDGE Section 169 The soul has fountains of knowledge within
221
Declaration of Locke that the soul has knowledge in itself
222
Opinions of Cudworth on the subject of internal knowledge
223
Further remarks of the same writer on this subject
224
Writers who have objected to the doctrine of an internal source of knowledge
226
174
228
175
229
Of the ideas of right and wrong
251
193
252
194
253
195
254
197
257
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199
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Of committing to writing as a means of aiding the memory
260
200
261
Occasions on which feelings of relation may arise
262
203
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206
265
207
266
209
268
210
270
211
271
VII Of relations of cause and effect
272
Page 213
273
Connexion of relative suggestion or judgment with reasoning
274
Reasons for considering this subject here
275
Meaning of association and illustrations
276
Of the general laws of association
277
Resemblance the first general law of association
278
Resemblance in every particular not necessary
279
Of resemblance in the effects produced
280
Contrast the second general or primary law
281
Contiguity the third general or primary law
282
Cause and effect the fourth primary law
284
Secondary laws and their connexion with the primary
285
Of the influence of lapse of time
286
Secondary law of repetition or habit
287
Of the secondary law of coexistent emotion
288
Original difference in the mental constitution
289
The foregoing law as applicable to the sensibilities
290
Of association caused by present objects of perception
292
232
294
Association sometimes misleads our judgments
295
234
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Connexion of our ideas of extension and time
297
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301
240
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Power of the will over mental associations
305
243
306
Further illustrations of indirect voluntary power
307
MEMORY 245 Remarks on the general nature of memory
309
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310
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311
Of circumstantial memory or that species of memory which is based on the relations of contiguity in time and place
312
249
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315
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320
CONSCIOUSNESS 257
325
Consciousness the second source of internal knowledge its nature 256
327
216
329
261
330
262
331
263
333
Application of the principles of this chapter to education
337
Process of the mind in all cases of reasoning
344
Of differences in the power of reasoning
351
Use of definitions and axioms in demonstrative reasoning
357
Further considerations on the influence of demonstrative reasoning
363
Of reasoning by induction
369
Consider the kind of evidence applicable to the subject
375
Reject the aid of false arguments or sophisms
376
Fallacia equivocationis or the use of equivocai terms and phrases
378
On the sophism of estimating actions and character from the cir cumstances of success merely
379
Of adherence to our opinions
380
Effects on the mind of debating for victory instead of truth
381
IMAGINATION 306 Imagination an intellectual process closely related to reasoning
383
Definition of the power of imagination
384
Process of the mind in the creations of the imagination
385
Further remarks on the same subject
386
Illustration from the writings of Dr Reid
387
Illustration of the subject from Milton
388
The creations of the imagination not entirely voluntary
389
Illustration of the statements of the preceding section
390
On the utility of the faculty of the imagination
391
Works of imagination give different degrees of pleasure
392
Importance of the imagination in connexion with reasoning
394
Of misconceptions by means of the imagination
396
Explanation of the above misrepresentations of the imagination
397
Feelings of sympathy aided by the imagination
398
COMPLEX IDEAS OF INTERNAL ORIGIN 321 Of complex ideas of external origin
399
Nature of complex ideas of internal origin
400
Of the help afforded by names in the combination of numbers
401
Instances of complex notions made up of different simple ideas
402
Not the same internal complex ideas in all languages
404
Origin of the complex notion of a Supreme Being
406
DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND PART THIRD IMP...
409
CONNEXION OF THE MIND AND BODY Section Page 328 Disordered intellectual action connected with the body
411
The mind constituted on the principle of a connexion with the body
412
Illustration of the subject from the effects of old age
413
The connexion of the bodily system with the mental shown from the effects resulting from diseases
414
Shown also from the effects of stimulating drugs and gases
415
Influence on the body of excited imagination and passion
416
This doctrine of use in explaining mental phenomena
417
CHAP IIEXCITED CONCEPTIONS OR APPARITIONS 335 Of excited conceptions and of apparitions in general
418
Of the less permanent excited conceptions of sight
419
Of the less permanent excited conceptions of sound
421
Section Page 338 First cause of permanently vivid conceptions or apparitions Morbid sensibility of the retina of the eye
422
Second cause of permanently excited conceptions or apparitions Neglect of periodical bloodletting
424
Methods of relief adopted in this case
426
Third cause of excited conceptions Attacks of fever
427
Fourth cause of apparitions and other excited conceptions In flammation of the brain
428
Facts having relation to the fourth cause of excited conceptions
429
Fifth cause of apparitions Hysteria
430
PARTIAL INSANITY 345 Meaning of the term and kinds of insanity
431
Of disordered or alienated sensations
432
Of disordered or alienated external perception
433
Disordered state or insanity of original suggestion
434
Unsoundness or insanity of consciousness
435
Insanity of the judgment or relative suggestion
436
369
437
Of partial insanity or alienation of the memory
438
Of the power of reasoning in the partially insane
440
Instance of the above form of disordered reasoning
441
Of readiness of reasoning in the partially insane
442
Partial mental alienation by means of the imagination
443
Insanity or alienation of the power of belief
444
359
446
Of perception in cases of total or delirious insanity
447
Illustration of the above section
448
Of the memory in connexion with delirious insanity
449
Of the power of reasoning in total or delirious insanity
450
Of the form of insanity called furor or madness
451
Of moral accountability in mental alienation
452
Of the imputation of insanity to individuals
453
Of the treatment of the insane
454

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Trang 71 - For the invisible things of God from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead...
Trang 199 - The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark, When neither is attended ; and, I think The nightingale, if she should sing by day, When every goose is cackling, would be thought No better a musician than the wren.
Trang 220 - ... as we do from bodies affecting our senses. This source of ideas every man has wholly in himself; and though it be not sense, as having nothing to do with external objects, yet it is very like it, and might properly enough be called internal sense.
Trang 330 - Lulled in the countless chambers of the brain, Our thoughts are linked by many a hidden chain. Awake but one, and lo, what myriads rise ! * Each stamps its image as the other flies.
Trang 204 - IN Xanadu did Kubla Khan A stately pleasure-dome decree : Where Alph, the sacred river, ran Through caverns measureless to man Down to a sunless sea. So twice five miles of fertile ground With walls and towers were girdled round : And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree ; And here were forests ancient as the hills, Enfolding sunny spots...
Trang 389 - Invention is one of the great marks of genius ; but if we consult experience we shall find, that it is by being conversant with the inventions of others that we learn to invent, as by reading the thoughts of others we learn to think.
Trang 392 - He was passionately fond of the beauties of nature ; and I recollect once he told me, when I was admiring a distant prospect in one of our morning walks, that the sight of so many smoking cottages gave a pleasure to his mind, which none could understand who had not witnessed, like himself, the happiness and the worth which they contained.
Trang 417 - The sooty films that play upon the bars Pendulous, and foreboding in the view Of superstition, prophesying still, Though still deceived, some stranger's near approach.
Trang 220 - Secondly, the other fountain from which experience furnisheth the understanding with ideas is,— the perception of the operations of our own mind within us, as it is employed about the ideas it has got;— which operations, when the soul comes to reflect on and consider, do furnish the understanding with another set of ideas, which could not be had from things without. And such are perception, thinking, doubting...
Trang 397 - ... his children — But here my heart began to bleed, and I was forced to go on with another part of the portrait.

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