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"He cannot deny himself the vanity of finifling with the encomium of Dr. Johnfon, whofe friendly partiality to the companion of this tour reprefents him as one whofe acutenefs would help any inquiry, and whofe gaity of converfation, and civility of manners, are fufficient to counteract the inconveniences of travel, in countries lefs hofpitable than we have passed.'

Few of Mr. Bolwell's friends can, I believe, add much to this honest and candid confeffion. His enemies are welcome, if they please, to dwell upon his failings. Of thefe he had not many, and they were injurious to no perfon. Good-nature was highly predominant in his character. He appeared to entertain fentiments of benevolence to all mankind; and it does not feem that he ever did, or could, injure any human being intentionally. His converfation-talents were always pleating, and often fafcinating. But can we wonder at this in him who, with a capacity to learn, had been the companion of Johnfon for more than twenty years? He was a Johnfonian in every thing but the manner; and there were few of Dr. Johnfon's friends that were not very ready to difpenfe with that. His attachment to the doctor for fo long a period was a meritorious perfeverance in the defire of knowledge. To it the world is indebted for the moft finished picture of an eminent man that ever was executed.

Vanity has been imputed to our author. But let it be remembered that he enjoyed advantages which rendered that confpicuous in him from which no man can claim an exemption. There is never a man who would not have been vain to poffefs fo much of Dr. Johnfon's converfation,

and proud to give it to the world, in hopes that he who venerated Johnfon would not be unthankful to his biographer.

From the doctor, however, he appears to have imbibed a portion of conftitutional melancholy. Of late years, he has often complained of this; and he flew for relief where, perhaps, it is best to be found, to the fociety of the learned and the gay. Here, as he confeffes, "he had rather too little than too much prudence;" and, with more attachment to the activity of rural life, be might, probably, have lengthened his days. But, as his " belief in Revelation was unfhaken," and his religious impreflions deep and recurring frequently, let us hope that he has now attained that state from which imperfection and calamity are alike excluded.

The Life of Patrick Browne, M. D. Author of the Hiftory of Jamcica; from the European Magazine.


R. BROWNE was the fourth fon of Edward Erowne, efq. a gentleman of refpectable family and handfome eftate. He was bom at Woodflock, the paternal inheri tance, in the parish of Crofsboype, and county of Mayo, about the year 1720. After receiving the beft education that country could afford, he was fent to a near relation in the island of Antigua, in 1737; but the climate at that time dif agreeing very much with his confti tution, he returned in about a year to Europe, and landing in France, went directly to Paris, where he fpeedily recovered his health; and, with the approbation of his parents,


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After five years spent at Paris he removed to Leyden, where he ftudied near two years more, and from that univerfity obtained his degree of M. D.-Here he formed an intimacy with Gronovius and Mufchenbroeck, and commenced a correfpondence with Linnæus and other eminent botanists and learned men. From Holland he proceeded to London, where he practifed near two years, moft of which time he attended St. Thomas's hofpital, with the celebrated doctor Letherland, phylician formerly to queen Caroline, his warm and affectionate friend. From thence he went out again to the West Indies, and after fpending fome months in Antigua and fome others of the fugar-iflands, he proceeded to Jamaica, where he fpent his time in collecting and preferving fpecimens of the plants, birds, fhells, &c. of thofe luxuriant foils, with a view to the improvement of natural hiftory.

Whilft in Jamaica, his refidence was chiefly in Kingston, and it was he who firft pointed out the abfurdity of continuing Spanish town the port and capital, whilft reafon plainly pointed out Kingfion, or in his own words "the defects of a port of clearance to leeward;" and by his writings the governor and council reprefented the matter fo ftrikingly to earl Granville, prefident of the council, 1756, that the meafure was immediately adopted, and Kingston made the port of clearance, to the very great benefit of com merce in general, as before that when flips were clearing out of

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Soon after this (March, 1756) he published his Civil and Natural Hiftory of Jamaica, in folio, ornamented with forty-nine engravings of natural hiftory, a whole feet map of the ifland, and another of the harbour of PortRoyal, Kingston-town, &c. this work there were but two hundred and fifty copies printed by fubfcription, at the very low price of one guinca, but a few were fold at two pounds two fhillings in theets by the printer. Moft unfortunately all the sopper plates, as well as the original drawings, were confumed by the great fire in Cornhill, November 7, 1765.

This alone prevented in his lifetime a fecond edition of that work, for which he made confiderable preparations, by many additional plants, and a few corrections in his feveral voyages to these islands, for he was fix different times in the Weft Indies; in one of thofe trips he lived above twelve months in the ifland of Antigua: however thefe obfervations will we truft not be loft to the public, as he lately fent to fir Jofeph Banks, P. R. S. "A catalogue of the plants growing in the fugar-iflands, &c. claffed and defcribed according to the Linnæan [*C 2]


fyftem, in quarto, containing about eighty pages.

Dr. Browne long and regularly kept up a correfpondence with the celebrated Linnæus, which continued to his death.

In Exfhaw's Gentleman's, and London Magazine for June, 1774, he publifhed" A Catalogue of the Birds of Ireland," and in Exfhaw's Auguft Magazine following, A Catalogue of its Fith."

In 1788, he got ready for the prefs a very curious and useful Catalogue of the Plants of the northweft counties of Ireland, claffed with great care and accuracy according to the Linnæan fyftem, containing above leven hundred plants, moftly obferved by himself, having trufted very few to the defcriptions of others. This little tract, written in Latin with the English and Irish names, might be of confiderable ufe in affifting to compile a Flora Ilibernica, a work every botanist will allow to be much wanting,

The doctor was a tall, comely man, of good addrefs and gentle manners, naturally chearful, very temperate and in general healthy; but of late years had violent periodical fits of the gout, by which he fuffered greatly in the intervals of thefe unwelcome fits, he formed the Catalogue of Plants, and was always, when in health, doing fomething in natural hiftory or mathematics. At a very early period he married in Antigua a native of that ifland, but had no iffue. His circumftances were moderate but eafy, and the poor found ample benefit from his liberality as. well as profethonal kill. This worthy member of fociety paid the debt of nature at Ruthbrook, county of Mayo, on Sunday, August 29, 1790, and

In his will

was interred in the famly burial-
place at Crofsboyne.
he defired the following infcription
tion to be placed on his monu-
ment, viz.

"Hanc opponi juffit Patri Matri
Fratribufque Piiffimis & fibi;
Patricius Browne olim Medicus
Jamaicenfis, qui nunc infita
humiliter pro tum inter mor-
tuos enumerandum deprecetur
præcis fidelium pro fe illifque
offerri; ut cum Domino Deo
Requiefcant in pace. Amen."

His publications are,

"The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica, containing, 1. An accurate Defcription of that Island, its Situation and Soil; with a brief Account of its former and prefent State, Government, Revenues, Produce, and Trade. 2. A Hiftory of the Natural Productions, including the various Sorts of native Foffils; Perfect and Imperfect Vegetables ; Quadrupeds, Birds, Fithes, Reptiles, and Infects; with their Propertics and Ufes in Mechanics, Diet, and Phyfic.

"By Patrick Browne, M. D. "Illuftrated with forty-nine copperplates, in which the most curious productions are reprefented of their natural fizes, and delineated im2 mediately from the objects, by George Dionyfius Ehret."

In this work, Dr. Browne obferves "Sir Hans Sloane hath not collected above 800 fpecies of plants in all his travels: in Jamaica alone I have examined and defcribed about 1200, besides foffils, infects, and other productions, many of which he makes ne mention of. It must be owned, neverthelefs, to his praife, that his works, inaccurate as they are, upon the


DAM Smith, author of the

whole, have done both the author and Inquiry into the Nature and

his country credit.

The doctor hints at three Differtations, and one on Worm Fevers, intended to be published (but they never were.)

His next work was a fhort Eflay, intitled A Catalogue of the Birds of Ireland, whether Natives, Cafual Vifitors, or Birds of Paffage, taken from Obfervation; claffed and difpofed according to Linnæus." This was published in Exfhaw's Magazine, June, 1774,


"A Catalogue of Fithes, obferved on our Coafts, and in our Lakes and Rivers, claffed and difpofed according to Linnæus.”—In Exthaw's Magazine for Auguft,

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Caufes of the Wealth of Nations, was the fon of Adam Smith, comptroller of the cuftoms at Kirkaldy, and of Margaret Douglas, daugh ter of Mr. Douglas, of Strathenry. He was the only child of the marriage, and was born at Kirkaldy on the 5th of June, 1723, a few months after the death of his father.

His conftitution during infancy was infirm and fickly, and required all the tender folicitude of his fur viving parent. She was blamed for treating him with an unlimited indulgence: but it produced no unfavourable effects on his temper or his difpofitions:-and he enjoyed the rare fatisfaction of being able to repay her affection, by every attention that filial gratitude could dictate, during the long period of fixty years.

An accident, which happened to him when he was about three years old, is of too interefting a nature to be omitted in the account of fo valuable a life. He had been carried by his mother to Strathenry on a vifit to his uncle, Mr. Douglas, and was one day amufing himself alone at the door of the house, when he was ftolen by a party of that let of vagrants who are known in Scotland by the name of tinkers. Luckily he was foon mified by his uncle, who hearing that fome vagrants had paffed, purfued them, with what affiftance he could find, till he over, took them in Leflie wood; and was the happy inftrument of preferving to the world a genius, which was defined, not only to extend the boundaries of fcience, but to en lighten and reform the commercial policy of Europe.

The fchool of Kirkaldy, where Mr. Smith received the first rudi[* C 3] ments

ments of his education, was then was a fellow-ftudent of Mr. Smith's,

taught by Mr. David Miller, a teacher, in his day, of confiderable reputation, and whofe name deferves to be recorded, on account of the eminent men whom that very obfcure feminary produced, while under his direction. Mr. Ofwald, of Dunikeir, whofe profound know ledge of finances raifed him afterwards to important employments in the state, and to a distinguished rank as a parliamentary fpeaker; his brother, Dr. John Ofwald, afterwards bishop of Raphoe; and Dr. John Dryfdale, whofe talents and worth are well known to this fociety, were among the number of Mr. Smith's contemporaries.--One of his fchoolfellows is fill alive; and to his kindnefs I am principally indebted for the feanty materials, which form the first part of this narr tive.

Among thefe companions of his earliest years, Mr. Smith foon attracted notice, by his paflion for books, and by the extraordinary powers of his memory. The weaknels of his bodily constitution prevented him from partaking in their more active amfoments; but he was much beloved by them on account of his temper, which, though warm, was to an uncommon degree friendly and generous. Even then he was remarkable for thofe habits which remained with him through life, of fpeaking to himself when alone, and of abfence in


From the grammar-fchool of Kirkaldy, he was fent, in 1737, to the univerfity of Glasgow, where he remained till 1740, when he went to Baliol College, Oxford, as an exhibitioner on Snell's foundation.

at Glafgow, told me, fome years ago, that his favourite purfuits, while at that univerfity, were mathematics and natural philofophy; and I remember to have heard my fa ther remind him of a geometrical problem of confiderable difficulty, about which he was occnpied at the time when their acquaintance com menced, and which had been propofed to him as an exercife by the celebrated Dr. Simpton.

Thele, however, were certainly not the fciences in which he was formed to excel; nor did they long divert him from purfaits more congenial to his mind. What lord Bacon fays of Plato may be julily applied to him: "Illum, licet ad rempublicam non acceffiffet, tamen natura et inclinatione omnino ad res civiles propenfum, vires eo præcipue intendille; neque de phi-, lofophia naturali admodum follicitum eile; nifi quatenus ad philofophia nomen et celibritatem tuendam, et ad majeftatem quandam moralibus et civilibus doctrinis addendam et afpergendam fufficeret." The ftudy of human mature in all its branches, more particularly of the political history of mankind, opened a boundlefs field to his cu riofity and ambition; and, while it afforded cope to all the various powers of his verfatile and compre hentive genius, gratified his ruling pation, of contributing to the hap pinets and the improvement of fo ciety. To this ftudy, diverfified at his leilure hours by the lefs fevere occupations of polite literature, he feems to have devoted himself almoft entirely from the time of his removal to Oxford; but he ftill retained, and retained even in ad

- Dr. Maclaine, of the Hague, who vanced years, a recollection of his


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