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meftic life. The habits of the magiftrate will infect the conduct of the hufband, the father, the friend, the country gentleman; they will render him arrogant and over-bearing, four and morofe, impatient of .contradiction, obftinate in his defigns and undertakings, gloomy, fufpicious, and unfeeling; uncomfortable to all around him, and more uncomfortable to himself."

The next chapter treats of the clerical profeffion, for the principal materials of which our author acknowledges his obligations to bifhop Burnet and archbishop Secker. We fhall make no quotations from this part of the fubject; for, with whatever faults the clergy may be charged, it will hardly be faid, generally, that they have no knowledge of their duty; nor can thofe to whom the cenfure may be juftly applied, attribute their ignorance to the want of instruction.

On the chapter concerning the duties of phyficians we fhall make but one remark. Mr. Gisborne is of opinion that avarice is a vice imputed, juftly or unjustly, to that profeffion. We have always underftood the exact contrary to be the cafe; and that no class of men whatever in the exercise of their art fhew greater liberality. Dr. Samuel Johnfon was of this opinion, and we believe it to be true (in cities and great towns) of perfons of that faculty, with very few exceptions. In lefs populons fituations the phyfician is very rarely applied to but by the wealthy; and towards them generofity is out of the question,

The following quotation from the thirteenth chapter recommends equity and steadiness of conduct to perfons engaged in trade and bufinefs.

"It frequently happens that men

over-rate the good which they have done, and perhaps it is equally common for them to have confidered too little the good which they might have done. The fervices which a perfon engaged in a liberal line of trade or bufinefs may render to the public, by an upright discharge of the duties of his occupation, and a diligent attention to the opportunities of usefulness which it affords, are not fufficiently regarded. He who purfues his employment for its proper ends, and conducts himself on principles of equity and benevolence; who fcrupulously obeys the precepts of religion and the laws of his country; who feeks no unfair or unreasonable advantages, nor takes them even when they obtrude themselves upon him for acceptance; who withstands pernicious combinations, and dares even to set the example of breaking dishonest and difingenuous cuftoms; who joins openness to prudence, and beneficence to frugality; who fhews himfelf candid to his rivals, modest in fuccefs, and chearful under difappointments; and who adorns his profeffional knowledge with the various acquifitions of an enlarged and cultivated understanding is a bene, factor to his country and to mankind. His example and his influence operate at once on the circle in which he moves, and gradually extend themselves far and wide. Others, who have been witnesses of his proceedings and his virtues, imi tate them both, and become the centre of improvement to additional circles. Thus a broad foundation is laid for purifying trade from the real ftains which it has contracted, and of refcuing it from the dif graceful imputations with which it is undefervedly charged. And thus [* M 2] a fingle

a fingle individual may contribute in no fmall degree to produce a moral revolution in the commercial character."

The rules which our author gives for the regulation of paper credit are very judicious:

"The fundamental principle to be infifted on, with refpect to contracting engagements of the nature in queftion, is that which fhould regulate every engagement of every kind: namely, that they who promife fhould know themselves to be able to perform. It is manifeftly not enough that he who figns or in dorfes a bill (for the fame general principles attach to both) fhould know that he is able ultimately to pay it; he fhould know that he is able to pay it, that is to fay, to find means of paying it at the time when it becomes due. In this latter particular, however, fome latitude of interpretation is allowable. He is He is not bound to be morally certain that he fhall be able to pay it in every poffible emergence which may arife. The poffibility of a great political convulfion, of a general ftagnation in mercantile credit, or of fome very extraordinary lofs of his own; though any one of thefe events might difable an individual from paying his bill, should not prevent him from giving a bill, thefe not being events reafonably to be calculated upon. And the concurring demands of a very large number of holders of his notes are no more to be calculated upon than the cafes above-mention ed: indeed, they commonly imply the exiftence of one of thofe cafes, namely, a general ftagnation of mercantile credit. Neither a banker, therefore, nor any other perfon, is din confcience to limit his fig

and indorsement of bills to

the fum which he knows he may by poffibility be required to pay; nor to that which he may have literally bound himself to pay; but to the fum for which he may reafonably expect that he fhall, in confequence of thofe engagements, be called upon. Care, however, is to be taken, and in the cafe of a banker efpecial care, that he keeps on the prudent fide."

Our author's caution to merchants against the practice of covering fhips, as the term is, in time of war, or making them over by a fictitious transfer to the fubject of fome neutral power, that by means of the papers procured through the pretended fale they may appear to be neutral property if taken by the enemy, is well worthy their attention.

"It may be urged, perhaps, in behalf of this proceeding, that it is confeffedly allowable to impofe on an adverfary; that the art of war confifts of ftratagems and feints; that no moralift was ever rigid enough to condemn the admiral or the merchantman for hanging out falfe colours; and that it is abfurd to maintain that it is lawful to deceive an antagonist by fictitious flags, yet unlawful to delude him by fictitious papers. This is not the place for examining how far and on wliat grounds it may be juftifiable for open enemies to impofe on each other; nor is the proceeding under confideration to be tried or juftified by thofe rules; for here is a third party introduced, the inhabitant of the neutral state, a state in profound peace with both the contending nations; who deliberately fuffers himself to be bribed by a fubject of the one to practice an artifice on thofe of the other, which no plea, but that of being himself


engaged in avowed hoftilities with the latter, could poffibly have juftified. And if it be thús criminal in the Auftrian to become an accomplice in the plot, it is at leaft as criminal in the British merchant to tempt him to accede to it, or to avail himself of his concurrence."* The following note is fubjoined to the fame paflage which we have juft quoted.

"In the late war it was very common for British merchants to procure Auftrian papers for their veffels, efpecially for thofe deftined for the Mediterranean; and during the fame period many Britifh fhips were nominally rendered Ruffian property in a fimilar way.

"A fimilar mode of proceeding, though directly contrary to the laws of Great Britain, as well as thofe of morality, prevailed to a great extent during the exiftence of the late charter of the Eaft India-Company, which prohibited the fending of any commodities from England to the British dominions, in the Eaft, except through the medium of the company. But the English merchant often faw great advantage to be derived from tranfmitting them through another channel against the company's confent. He therefore loaded his hip, and ordered it to Oftend to be covered. Being thus made in appearance Auftrian property, it was enabled to land its cargo in Hindoftan. The changes made in the charter on its late renewal have taken away the temptation to fuch frauds, but the remembrance of them may be useful; and as the recital of a diftreffing event

refulting from an immoral practice proves fometimes an effectual method of deterring men from proceedings of the fame nature, I am induced to relate, though without naming the parties concerned, a circumftance which lately took place. The laws, defigning to throw obftructions in the way of those who might endeavour fraudulently to fend goods to the Eaft Indies, had difqualified every tradefman who fold any articles to a merchant, and knew they were fmuggled thither, from recovering the price by a legal procefs. A London dealer furnished a merchant with a large quantity of goods, being confcious that they were to be fent to the Eaft Indies by means of Offend papers. Soon afterwards diftrufting the refponfibility of the purchafer, he thought it prudent to fue out a commiffion of bankruptcy against him; and in the capacity of petitioning creditor took an oath of the reality of the debt. The other party retorted his attack, by threatening to profecute him for perjury. The tradefman finding that the law would not recognize fuch a debt, and that he fhould certainly be outwitted, fhrunk from the impending difgrace and fhot himfelf."

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Probably too, in cafe of capture, an oath would be neceffary to authenticate what the papers falfely averred; and there is much danger that it would not be fcrupled to procure the release of the thip. The merchant's criminality is increased by his being aware of fuch a temptation.

[*MS] ·


of a manufactory. Let him not `think himself at liberty to barter the lives of men for gold and filver. Let him not feek profit by acting the part of an executioner. Let him ftation his workmen in large, dry, and well ventilated rooms. Let him conftantly prefer giving them their work to perform at home, whenever it can be done with tole rable convenience, to collecting them together in the fame apartment. Let him encourage them, when opportunity offers, to refide in villages and hamlets, rather than in a crowded town. Let him inculcate in them* in how great a degree cleanliness contributes to health, and imprefs them with the neceffity of invariably observing those many little regulations, † which though fingly too minute to be noticed in this place, have collectively much effect in preventing difeafe. Where his own efforts feem likely to fail, let him lay the matter before the ableft phyficians, and freadily put in practice the inftructions which he re

ceives; and finally, let him exert his utmoft abilities to discover innoxious processes which may be fubftituted for fuch as prove detrimental to the perfons who conduct them; and direct by private folicitation, and on proper occafions by public premiums, the attention of experienced artifts and manufacturers to the fame object. The fuccess of his endeavours may in many cafes be found highly advantageous to him, not merely by preferving the lives of his moft fkilful workmen, but by faving fome valuable material formerly loft in the operation. But, whether that be the cafe or not, he will at least reap a fatisfaction from them which he could not otherwife have enjoyed, that of reflecting on his profits with a quiet confcience.

In the Chapter on the duties of private gentlemen, there is the fol-. lowing paffage :

"The weight which a wealthy land-owner, refident in the country, poffeffes in the place where his pro

• "The proprietor of a great manufactory, established near a large inland town, told a perfon of credit, from whom I heard the fact, that on approaching his workmen he could difcern by the smell proceeding from their clothes, whether they lived in the town or on a neighbouring common. This circumstance also might point out the comparative healthfulness of the two situations.

"The latter of the two gentlemen mentioned in the preceding note informed me, that having obferved fome young perfons in his own manufactory to be affected, by being employed on a preparation of lead, he had completely remedied the evil, by appointing an old workman conftantly to attend them with water and towels on their leaving their work at meal-times, and oblige them thoroughly to wash their lands and faces before they ate; and also prohibiting them from playing, or using any strong exercise, until they had pulled off their coats and aprons, which were fprinkled with lead. It appeared from exrience, that if they used any confiderable exercise, without taking the latter precaution, the duft proceeding from their clothes was inhaled by them, and produced very prejudicial effects.

"Bishop Watson, after speaking in a paffage which has been recently quoted of the young man rendered paralytic, by fixing an amalgam of gold and filver on copper, fays, A chimney, I believe, has of late been opened at the farther fide of the oven, into which the mercurial vapour is driven; and thus both the mercury is faved, and the health of the operator is attended to. Chemical Effays, vol. 4, p. 255. In the fame volume, p. 275-277, the almost univerfal adoption of the cupola inftead of the hearth furnace for fmelting lead is fhewn to have been attended with great advantages to the proetors, as well as with the most falutary consequences to the workmen,"


perty is fituated, is ufually fo great as to give him a preponderating influence in the management of all parochial concerns. This influence ought never to be employed by him directly or indirectly for the attainment of felfish or improper ends. What epithets, for example, would his conduct deserve, if he fhould procure the levies and the ftatute labour of the parish to be expended in making or repairing roads contiguous to his own houfe, or beneficial chiefly to himself and his tenants; while others, of far more importance to the inhabitants in general, are left year after year almoft impaffable!

"What if, in order more effectually to accomplish his plans, he fhould cause himself to be appointed furveyor of the highways? what if, instead of fixing a watchful eye on the proceedings of public houfes, and endeavouring to abolish fuch as are diforderly or needlefs, he thould connive at their irregularities, or even promote an augmentation of their number, for the purpose of ferving fome partizan or dependent of his own: Far from expofing himfelf by fuch practices to the contempt of the neighbourhood, and the reproaches of his confcience, let him confider the influence he enjoys over others as a truft for the exercife of which he is responsible; and exert it, without grudging the trouble, in maintaining their rights, compofing their differences, increafing their comforts, and improving their morals. Let him devote, where it is neceflary, fome portion of his time and attention to the infpection of parochial accounts. Let him not tolerate the abuse of charitable bequests either in land or money, left for the benefit of the poor, by fuffering them to be configned into unfafe hands, or to be

let out on too low terms; or by allowing their produce to be mifapplied to fave the purfes of the rich. By his readiness to liften to wellfounded complaints, let him keep the different parish officers to their duty. The inhabitants of the workhoufe will then be treated with humanity, fed and clothed fufficiently, and furnished with neceffary books of religion; and will neither be oppreffed with immoderate labour, nor yet permitted, when able to work, to loiter and become vicious through idle nefs. Due affiftance will not not then be refufed in fit cafes to the fick and indigent in their own houfes. Doles and donations will be diftributed, not according to fect and party, but according to defert and neceffity. The fituation of the certificated poor, too frequently excluded from any fhare in fuch relief by thofe who are enjoying the benefit of their labour, will not be difregarded; nor will they be unneceflarily hurried away to their places of fettlement by vexatious or malicious removals."

The following advice to those who undertake the important office of fheriff well deferves to be confidered:

"Among the different public offi-. ces, which private gentlemen are called to undertake in their relpective counties, may be noticed those of theriff, deputy-lieutenant, grand or special jurors, and commiflioners of taxes, roads, and canals. Of thefe, that of fheriff is the most eminent. The sheriff is the first civil officer, as the lord-lieutenant is the firft in a military capacity. But let him not be vain of his temporary rank, or folicitous to out-vie his predeceffors, and dazzle the eyes of the gazing multitude by the fplendour of his equipage, and the number of his attendants. Let him be [*M+] impartial

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