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Continuation of the Partitioning Syftem of Policy.-Pruffian Troops entering Poland, take Poffeffion of Dantzic and Thorn.-A Second Partition of Poland avowed and declared by the Partitioning Powers to the Polish Diet.— Remonfirances of the Diet.-And Means employed for the Prevention of that Partition.-Violences of the Ruffian Ambaffador at Warfa.-The Polish Diet compelled by an armed force to fign a Treaty of Peace and Alliance with Ruffia.-And one of a like Nature and like Conditions with Pruffia. A Spirit of Oppofition in the Diet to Ruffia.-Revival of an Order of Knighthood that had been fuppreffed by Order of the Czarina.— Fatal Confequences of this Step.-Infolence and Tyranny of the Ruffians.— General Infurrection of the Poles.-Headed by Kofciufko.—Successes of the Poles -Junction of Ruffian and Pruffian Forces for the Reduction of Warfare.-Siege of Warfaw.-Brave and refolute Defence by the Poles.— The King of Pruffia raifes the Siege.-An immenfe Ruffian Army under Sincarrow, advances against Warfare-Decifive Action.-Defeat and Capture of Kofcioufko.-All Hopes of Poland at an end.-Final Dismemberment.— Tyranny of the Ruffians.-Reflections.

THE re-establishment of the ancient fyftem of government, and the univerfal fubmiffion of Poland to the powers and dictates of the court of Petersburgh, was followed by a dead calm of filent difcontent. Confcious of their inability to throw off the yoke, the Poles now waited with patient but indignant refignation fome aufpicious opportunity of doing themfelves justice. They were not without hopes that the restless ambition of the court of Peterburgh would foon or late involve it in fome altercation, from which it would not be able to extricate itself with fuccefs. This might prove an opportunity of humbling it fo effectually, as to enable fome of thofe powers, whom, in the intoxication of profperity, it

had offended, to unite for the reftoration of thofe countries, (through the unjuft acquifition of which the power of Ruffia was become fo formibable to its neighbours) to their former owners.

From the commencement of Augut, when the fubmiffion of Poland to Ruffia was completely effected, to the clofe of the year, an event occurred to disturb the arrangements that were making by the court of Petersburgh in the Polish governments and provinces. The Poles were beginning to enjoy fome repose, and to flatter themselves that, provided they remained peaceable, they would be fuffered to retain that portion of their country which they ftill poffeffed unmolefted by any future preten

fions. But, in the beginning of 1793, the fyftem of the partitioning powers began farther to unfold itfelf. A body of Pruffian troops marched into Poland, where they feized upon Thorn and Dantzic, neither of which cities were in a state of defence, but relied for their fecurity on the treaties fubfifting between Pruffia and Poland. The court of Berlin accompanied thefe hoftile meafures with a manifefto, purporting, that the king was induced to take them, by the apprehenfions of the danger to which his own dominions were expofed, from the proceedings of the jacobinical party in Poland, and the fedicious and revolutionary opinions they had infufed into the inhabitants bordering on his own territories. Being on the eve of a campaign in France, the two imperial courts concurred with him in opinion, that he ought, in good policy, to fecure himself from an attack by the factious party in Poland.

There is nothing more certain, than that ambitious governments have frequent recourfe to little diplomatic ftratagems and intrigues; nor was there any court more, if fo much addicted to thefe, in the prefent period, as the court of Berlin. It is an abfolute fact, that emiflaries, certain Italians, were fent from the court of Berlin, with the truly diabolical intent of forming Jacobin clubs in Poland, in order that the proceedings of thofe rafcals or fanatics might furnish pretexts for the introduction of new armies, and farther oppreffions. A fimilar device, for a fimilar purpofe, had been practifed by the fame court, in 1787, in Holland, in the arreftation of the princefs of Orange.

The Pruffian manifefto, which

was dated the fixth of January, 1793, was anfwered on the third of February, by the Polifh confederation, affembled at Grodno, in Lithuania. They protefted against the entrance of the Pruffians into Poland, as a violation of treaties, and firmly declared, they would not fitbmit to any farther difmemberment of their country. They requested count Sievers, the Ruffian ambassador, to inform the emprefs of the alarm they were under, by the report, that a fecond partition of Poland was intended; and trufted in her protection from fuch an attempt. But thefe remonftrances were of no effect. The determination was taken to proceed to another divifion of Poland; and every preparation was in readinefs for that purpofe. A proclamation was iffued on the fourteenth of February, by the emperor, prohibiting his fubjects in Galicia, that part of Poland which fell to the thare of Auftria, in the difmemberment of 1773, and all the Poles refident in his dominions, from obftructing the meafures of Ruffia, and of Pruffia, in their country. On the twentyninth of March, the emprefs publithed a manifefto, wherein the complained of her fruitless endeavours, during thirty years, to maintain peace and good order in Poland, of the lofles fhe had thereby fuftained, and of the neceflity to fupprefs the attempts against religion and public tranquility. For thefe, and other reafons of the like nature, the declared her intentions to feize, and annex to her Ruffian dominions, an immenfe extent of the Polish territories, contiguous to them, and which were particularly fpecified in the manifefto, The king of Pruffia's declaration, on the [C3] twenty


twenty-fifth, was of much the fame import; and ftated his defign to feize, and incorporate into his own dominions, feveral confiderable vinces of Poland, lying on his frontiers, and which were particularifed in the declaration. The courts of Petersburgh and Berlin took care to mention, in their respective publications, that they acted in concert, with the affent of the emperor.

Aftonished at these peremptory proceedings, the Polish diet folemn ly difclaimed all participation in the measures taken to difmember their country. But the minifters of Ruffia and Pruffia, mindless of this representation, infifted on the appointment of a deputation by the diet, to treat with them concerning the intended partition. The months of April and May, and beft part of June, were confumed in a correfpondence of this nature, between thefe miniftry and the Polish government. Irritated, at laft, by the arbitrary mandates daily fignified to them, the diet refolved, in the fitting of the twenty-fourth of June, to apply to the courts of Europe, for their mediation with the emprefs and king of Pruffia, in behalf of Poland. This application, appearing, however, a frail refource, it was moved, and carried by one hundred aud feven votes, againft twenty-four, that the deputation demanded should be commiffioned to treat only with the Ruflian minifter. It was additionally propofed, that the imperial prefident thould be invited to the conferences, as the court of Vienna was guarantee to the fettlement of Poland in 1775. Thefe motions occafioned fuch violent debates, and fo much time appeared requifite to reconcile

Hons, that the diet thought it

neceffary to adjourn to the middle of July.

But, before this time, the Ruffian ambassador comitted so many acts of violence, that neither the king nor the diet thought themselves fecure from any outrages he might be inclined to perpetrate. He had arrefted feveral members of the diet, fequeftrated the estates of feveral perfons of the first rank, and had even intercepted provifions coming to Warfaw for the king. Reprefentations being made, requesting him to defift from fuch proceedings, and to tranfmit their request to the emprefs, the deputies who had prefented it met with a pofitive refufal; and he fent a menacing note to the diet, requiring the immediate fignature and ratification of the treaty of alliance and commerce, demanded between Ruffia and Poland. The diet had the courage to refuse their confent to the treaty of alliance, which included new ceffions of territory to Ruffia; and adjourned to the end of the month.

In this refufal, the Ruffian ambaffador fent notice, that unless his demands were complied with, he would lay the eftates and pofleffions, and even the very houfes and habitations, of every member of the diet, under military execution, those of the king himfelf not excepted, were he allo to refufe. During the remainder of July, and the whole of Auguft, the Ruffian and Pruffian minifiers continued to urge the fignature of the treaty, in the moft menacing ftrain; but, on the fecond of September, finding their threats ineffectual, the Ruflian minifter fent word to the diet, that he had ordered a body of grenadiers, with cannon, to furround the caftle they were in, and expected they would not


depart till they had agreed to figned by a Ruffian general, who ad

the treaty. This menace was executed; and the commander of the detachment pofted himself, with his officers, in the hall of the diet; but, on the king declaring, he would not proceed to bufinefs in their prefence, the officers withdrew, and the commander only remained: but he openly declared, that no member fhould retire before confent was given to the treaty. The fitting continued till three o'clock next moming, when, after the most violent debates, the diet folemnly refolved to declare to all Europe, after appealing to it so often in vain, that, in defiance of the faith of treaties, that one especially entered into with the king of Pruffia at his own defire, in the year 1790, and by which he bound himself to guarantee the independence of Poland, they were now deprived of their free will, and furrounded by an armed force; which, being unable to refift, they were compelled to confent to the figning of the treaty, dictated and impofed upon them by the Ruffian ambaffador.

After terminating, in this manner, the negociation with Ruffia, the two courts refolved to effect the conclufion of that now pending with Pruffia, in the like manner. On the twenty-third of September, previously to the fitting of the diet, the Ruffian ambassador ordered four members to be arrested, and stationed a body of foldiers round the cafile. The diet demanded the liberty of those members, but were refufed. The affembly remained inactive during five hours, openly declaring, they were deprived, by main violence, from proceeding to bufinefs with freedom of deliberaion. Meanwhile, they were infult

dreffed them infolently, with threats, and with admonitions, to fign, without difputing the terms, the treaty required by the king of Pruffia. It was moved, at length, by count Ankwitz, the deputy from Cracow, to draw up a formal proteft, against this unlawful and tyrannical violation of public and perfonal liberty, by the Ruffian ambaffador, and that, when the treaty fhou'd again be proposed, their total diffent fhould be marked by the profoundest filence.

In confequence of this determi nation, the treaty, wh it was again propofed, according to the ufual forms, meeting with no oppofition, paffed of courfe; and the ceffion of the Polish provinces feized by Pruffia, was figned. The proteft that followed it was dictated by a deep fenfe of wrongs, that could not be remedied; and conveyed, with great energy, the fentiments of a noble-minded people, and a virtuous monarch, oppreffed by a fatal concurrence of inaufpicious circumftances, which no wildom could avert, nor the moft fpirited exertions of patriotism or of courage oppose.

The proteft concluded with thefe remarkable words: I, the king of Poland, enfeebled by age, and finking under the accumulated weight of fo many vexations and misfortunes, and we, the members of the diet, hereby declare, that being unable, even by the facrifice of our lives, to relieve our country from the yoke of its oppreflors, confign it to pofterity, trufting, that means may be found, at fome happier period, to refcue it from oppreffion and flavery; fuch means, unfortunately, are not in our power, [C4]


our fate.

and other countries abandon us to While they reprobate the violations which one country is faid to have committed againft liberty, they can view, not only with apathy, but with approbation, the outrages that have been perpetrated against Poland."

It is on fuch fad occafions as these, when whole nations of men are o verwhelmed by irrefiftable injuftice, oppreffion, and flavery, that the human mind rifes to the greatest height, above every felfish and low defire, is foftened by the moft comprehen five as well as generous fympathy, and fortified by the moft animating fenfe of duty and virtue: when the captive Ifraelites, hanging their harps on the willows, by the ftreams of Babel, are melted into tears at the recollection of Zion; when the Moors are compelled, by the unrelenting bigotry and overbearing force of the Spaniards, to leave the land poffeffed by them and their forefathers, during the lapfe of fo many ages; when the Dutch nation, in the period of fimple manners, and a love of their country, preffed by the fame bigotry and power, meditated the defign of embarking on board their veffels, and feeking liberty in diftant and dangerous climes; and the Vendeans, with their whole families, wander from region to region, fighting, as they go, for fubfiftance and for life.The fate of Poland, in the prefent meeting of the diet, was deplored by the pathetic eloquence of the nuncio Kimbar; "My advice," faid he, is, that we cede not to the inftances of the Ruffian ambaffador; that we raise ourfelves fuperior to his menaces. Sufferings are inconfiderable to virtue: it is her effence to contemn, and, if inevitable, to

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endure them. Why, therefore, fire, (addreffing himself to the king) are we to be thus alarmed? They menace with exile all thofe who dare defend their country: thofe who refufe to put the feal to its annihilation. Let us go, then, into Siberia: fhe will have charms for us: her deferts will become our paradife; for every thing, even our afhes, fhall proclaim the inflexibility of our virtue, its devotion to our country. You, fire, whofe reign is marked by a lengthened chain of misfortunes, if, in the midst of thefe difafters, you have been a thoufand times in circumftances which might have fecured immortality to your name, and happinefs to you country, alas all fruf trated! now feize with more fuccefs thofe which prefent themselves this day. Efface the faults of your early years, and, if the want of experience has given this reproach to your youth, that we needed a fovereign more active and determined, reply to this reproach, by evincing, under grey hairs, the courage and vigour denied to your youth. Pardon me, fire, that I here become your cenfor; but who can be otherwife, that boafts his attachment to you and the nation, and who remembers your facred pledge, that they fhould be for ever indivifible; that, rather than fet your hand to the partition of the country, it fhould wither to the bone.' He who recollects this will juftify my fentiments, and their language. He will be compelled to confefs, that it is the pure and fimple truth which flues from my lips.

"Sire, we love you. You may reckon upon our entire affection. The nation loves you: the country, which ferved you for a cradle in in


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