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ftained from direct hoftilities; but the uninterrupted career of fuccefs, that attended every where the arms of the republic, inclined the most prudent among the Swifs to act with more caution than they had hitherto done. The first of the cantons that acquiefced in the recognition of the republic was that of Bafle; nor was this canton prevailed upon to take that step, till the treaty between France and Pruffia had been concluded: the lofty conduct of the French on that occafion had made a profound impreffion upon their neighbours. Their minifter refufed to fign his name in any inftrument of negotiation, fubfequently to the fignature of any foreign minifter: the confequence of which was, that each party figned feparate papers, to be delivered by each other. As this determined fpirit fhewed how they were difpofed to act, it was judged advifeable not to exafperate them by delays, which must end at laft by yielding to the neceffity of coming to terms with them. The Proteftant cantons followed the example of Basle, in acknowledging the French republic; but the Romish cantons, inftigated by their clergy and by the French emigrants, ftill continued averfe to any accommodation; and, by the inveteracy of their conduct, laid the foundation of an enmity to them, of which the confequence proved fatal, at last, to all their countrymen.

Among the preceding treaties, that between France and Pruffia was peculiarly beneficial, by fixing a line of neutrality, beyond which the belligerent powers were not to extend their operation, and by producing two other pacific treaties;

the one was with the landgrave of Heffe Caffel, by which he agreed to furnish no more troops to serve against the republic; and the other. with the king of Great Britain, as elector of Hanover, and by which he acceded to make the fame conditions. Thefe two treaties, which took place about the clofe of Auguft, left the French at liberty to pursue their plans in other parts, without fear of moleftation on their frontiers to the North, and on the Lower Rhine. This was an advantage of the greatest importance, as they propofed to direct their chief exertions, against the counfries fituated on the Upper Rhine, and to open the next campaign by an invafion of the Auftrian dominions in Italy.

In addition to the foregoing treaties, one of alliance, offenfive and defenfive, was framed, in the courfe of the year, between France and the Seven United Provinces, now flyled the Batavian republic, As thefe provinces were wholly in the hands of the French, their government was entirely at their difpofal; and whatever they demanded was immediately complied with, as refiftance or complaint would be vain. They now drew up a treaty, the articles of which were manifeftly dictated by their own convenience, and completely calculated to render their Dutch allies fubfervient, in every refpect, to the interefts of France, which were alone and exclufively confulted throughout the whole tenour of this treaty. All the ftrong towns, that guarded the frontiers of the provinces, were, without exception, retained by the French, together with Dutch Flanders, and the chief iflands in Zea


land. The Batavian republic was to pay, as the price of its emancipation from the British and Pruffian government, the expences of the war in Holland for that purpose, and a payment of twenty millions was immediately required. The free navigation of the rivers in

Holland was to be the right of both French and Dutch indifcriminately, without exacting toll from either. Such were the general outlines of a treaty, by which the French pretended to have reftored their li berties and poffeffions to the people of the United Provinces.

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Incorporation of the Auftrian Netherlands with the French Republic.-An Object of Alarm to the Neighbouring Nations.-Debility of the French Marine.-Naval Exertions of France confined to Depredations on the British Trade.-Revolt under the Aufpices and Conduct of Victor Hughes, of the French W'efl-India Islands, that had been reduced by the English. -Superior Skill, Bravery, and Succefs, of the British Officers and Seamen.- -The Dutch Colony at the Cape of Good Hope taken by the English. -Success of the French in Piratical Warfare.-Bold and mafierly Retreat of Admiral Cornwallis.-Profperous State of French Affairs on the Continent.-Interference of the French in the Government of the small State of Geneva. This new-modelled after the Fashion of the French Republic.— Infurrections.-Violence.-A Revolutionary Tribunal.-Intrigues of the French, for bringing the City of Geneva under Subjection to the French Republic. The Influence of the New Principles of the French extends across the Atlantic-and excites dangerous Commotions in America.—The Authority of Government maintained in the United States of America, by the Moderation, Prudence, and Figour, of General Washington.-Infurrection of Emigrants from Ireland, and the Highlands of Scotland, in the Wefern Parts of Penfylvania.-Quelled by the Approach of a great and irrefiftible Force under General Washington.—A Difpute between the American States and the Indians, on the Frontiers, fupported by a Body of Canadians and British Colonifts.-Settled by the spirited and judicious Conduct of General Wayne.


UT the tranfaction which occupied the chief attention of Europe, was that famous decree which the convention pafled a short fpace before its diffolution, and which it confidered as a legacy left to the French nation, by thofe men who had founded its liberty, and preferved it, by their exertions, against the united powers of Europe. By that decree all the Auftrian Netherlands were formally incorporated with France, and a folemn admonition given to confider them as conftituent parts of the French republic, never to be ceded, but retained

at all events against all claims and pretences. This decree was univerfally viewed, by the political world, as a firebrand that would eventually kindle no lefs a conflagration than the celebrated decree of November, 1792, by which the convention had virtually invited the fubjects of all princes to throw off their obedience. The Aufirian Netherlands, if fuffered to remain in the poffeffion of France, would, in the perception of all difcerning men, prove fuch an addition of territory, of population, of wealth, and of ftrength, to France, as would render

it irrefiftible. Never, therefore, it was faid, fhould the powers of Europe permit thefe countries to be annexed to France, whether it conthued a republic, or refumed the frm of a monarchy. Its neigh bours especially, if they valued their dependence, thould think no coft too exceffive in reducing France to its former limits. Unless this were done, not only the balance of Europe, but the national exiftence of every people around would be continually expofed to the hoftile enterprizes of this ambitious and reftlfs nation.

The great victory obtained by lord Howe, on the 1ft of June, 1791, had fo completely ruined the marine of France, and extinguifhed all expectation of its being able, daring a long time, to meet that of Great Britain in battle, that the French government abandoned all defigns of this nature, and determined henceforth to confine its naval exertions to depredations on the British trade and navigation: a fyftem to which the politics of France had conftantly reforted, under the monarchy, after experiencing fuch difafters at fea, as had difabled her marine from encountering that of Britain in open fight. In this fpecious of maritime warfare they proved more fuccefsful than the other. The lift of captures, by the French, at the clofe of 1795, amounted, it has been reported, to more than two-thirds of their own loles: they had taken three thoufand veffels, and had loft only eight hundred. How far fuch effimates may afcertain the refpective damages of either party, it may be difficult to decide, without a fpecific return of the tonnage and cargoes of the fhipping thus taken. But the

detriment to this country muft cer tainly have been very confiderable, adverting only to the number of feamen that must have fallen into the enemy's hands, and allowing the other damages to have been equally balanced.

One material cause of debility, that befel the French marine, was the inexpertnefs of those multitudes that crowded their fhips. The neceflity of fupplying without delay their armies on the Frontiers, which were daily lofing fuch numbers, compelled government to colle&t able-bodied men as foon as they could be procured, and wherever they could be found Hence their fhipping of all deferiptions was ftripped of failors, who were fent to fight the battles of the republic at land. The French adminiftration was feverely cenfured for facrificing their feamen, inftead of the many others that might have been furnished out of thofe claffes that had little or no employment in the general fcarcity of trade and butinels: but neceffity and expedition was their plea, and appeared unaufwerable during the dangerous crifis to which the republic continued repofed, while pressed on the frontiers by the numerous armies of the coalefced powers.

Great complaints were made at the fame time in England, that with a fleet fuperior in point of real ftrength, confidering the skill of the officers and men, to that of all Europe combined, ftill the tranfmarine poffeffions of France were able to refift the exertions of the naval ftrength of this country, and to maintain the conteft in fome of thofe parts on more than equal ground. The year 1794 had been marked by the fuccefles obtained in the WoR [K 3]


Indies by fir Charles Grey, and fir John Jervis. Martinico, St. Lucia, and Guadeloupe, had been taken from the French; but before the conclufion of the year, the laft was recaptured; and early in the year enfuing, the French compelled St. Euftatius, the great magazine of all the Dutch islands, to furrender; and put it into fo ftong a pofture of defence, as to fruftrate all expectations of retaking it without the greatest difficulty. Encouraged by thefe advantages, they formed a plan for the reduction of the other iflands feized by the English in the preceding year. The French forces were under the command of the noted Victor Hughes, a man of a ferocious difpofition, but uncommon activity and courage, and remarkable for his hatred of the English. He had been fent from France, as commiffioner from the convention, with particular orders to execute the famous decree by which the Negroes were to be declared free. He carried it accordingly into the fullest execution, and furnished with arms and uniforms all the blacks and mulattoes that were willing to enter into the French fervice. It was at the head of this defperate multitude, aided by three or four thousand regular troops, that he had retaken Guadeloupe, and now projected to recover the other French i@ands. As a preparatory step to this undertaking, a fecret correfpondence was fet on foot with the difaffected French inhabitants of those islands, and emiffaries were fent among the negroes and people of colour to excite them against the English government. The refult was, that, in the fpring of this year, a concerted revolt took place at the fame time in all these islands.

In that of St. Lucia it broke out fo fuddenly, and the infurgents were fo numerous, that they overpowered the British garrifon, most of which was obliged, after a gallant but ineffectual refiftance, to retire into the fort. Collecting their scattered force, they attacked the principal poft of the infurgents, and after a fevere difpute, threw them into dif order. But they rallied, and after a fecond conflict, wherein the Britifh forces were repulfed with great lofs, the infurgents remained masters of the field, and the garrifon retreated to the fort; and, after fuf fering a three months blockade, evacuated the ifland. Granada being a place of more importance than the former, the French commiffioner difpatched a body of chofen men ; affifted by whom, the blacks, and their affociates of a colours, furioufly attacked the British troops, and defeated them in feveral engagements. As foon, however, as thefe had been reinforced, they fell with fo much vigour on the infur gents, that they drove them from the open country, and forced them to take fhelter in the mountainous parts of the island. Here they were reduced to the greateft diftrefs for provifions: though fuch was their obftinacy, that they refufed to furrender, and chofe rather to encoun ter all hardships, in thofe wretched but inacceffible fortrefies, than return to their former fubjection. The ifland of Dominico was attacked in like manner by a body of troops fent from Guadeloupe by the French commiffioner, and who were joined by a multitude of negroes and many of the old French inhabitants. The number of British regulars was very finall; but the British fettlers themfelves fupplied that deficiency by

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