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Meting of the New Legislature.-Strength of the predominant Party-New and great Object of Ambition among the Leaders.-Characters of the Members of the newly-established Directory.-Pomp and Parade of the Directory-Policy of keeping up a Tafie for external Splendour and Diftinction.-Thefe hateful to the rigid Republicans.-The Terrorists, called now the Society of the Pantheon, refume their primary Defigns.-The Directory alarmed, yet judge it expedient to court the Favour of the Terrorifts.—Regulations of the Directory, and Contefis refpecting the public Songs of Paris. -The Spirit and Temper of the Parifians indicated by thefe Contefis; a feafonable Admonition to the Directory.—Decline of Terrorism.—The Terrorifis, or Society of the Pantheon fuppreffed, and the Houfe itself fhut up.The Terrorists continue to affemble, and give vent to their Rage, in small Parties A new Oppofition to the Directory, more formidable than the Society of the Pantheon had been.—Reduction of the Galleries in the Hall of the Convention, to a Space not containing more than three Hunded Spectators.-Utility of dividing the Legislature into two independant Bodies Remarkable Artifice of the Junior Council for commanding the Appointment of all the Members of the Directory.-Establishment of an Inflitution in France for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences. And of Central Schools for Languages, Literature, and Philofophy, in all the Departments.Perfect Enjoyment of Religious Toleration.-Bigotry and Prefumption of the Roman Catholics.-Checked with Moderation by the Directory.-Treaties of Peace between the French Republic, and other Governments.-Public Mention of them by different States.

THE meeting of the new legifla ture opened a scene of the moft intricate nature. The predominant party held the reins of government in their hands, and entertained no apprehenfions that the other would ever be able to fupplant them. The people, it was true, favoured their rivals; but they were fupported by that effential engine of abfolute power, an army, which they had fo artfully modelled, that it was entirely at their devotion. Still, however, they were agitated by thofe paffions that always acompany men of afpiring difpofitions. The great object of

ambition was now to occupy a feat

on the directorial throne. All the great leaders of the ruling party were fecretly exerting their interest for this purpofe; and the public were fufpeuded between the hope that men of parts and fair character would be raised to this high ftation, and the fear that the fpirit of faction would fill it unworthily. Had the wishes of the nation been confulted, the moft eminent of the moderate party would undoubtedly have been promoted to that dignity, or if any of the others had been admitted to a participation, in order to obviate the jealoufies and complaints of too [1.2]


much partiality to one fide, ftill the preponderance of number would have refted with the popular choice. But the very reverfe happened. Out of five directors, four were of the ruling faction. These were Reubel, • Latourneur Delamanche, Barras, Syeyes, and Lareveillere Lepaux. Reubel was a man of ftrong, though not fining parts, born in the province of Alfatia, where he exercifed the profeffion of the law, and early diftinguished himself, by pleading the caufe of the lower againft the upper claffes, and braving minifterial power under the old royal government. He had been employed in fome arduous and intricate affairs by the oppofition to the court, and had always conducted himfelf with an inflexible determination never to abandon that party. He now reaped the reward of his attachment to it: no man was more confided in by the republicans. He was one from principle, and his very man ners difplayed an auftere finiplicity that highly recommended him to them. Latourneur Delamanche was originally an officer in the army; his abilities were moderate; but he was of a fteady and refolute difpofition; firmly and decidedly a republican, but averfe to feverity, and an avowed enemy to the violent measures purfued by the jacobins and terrorists. Barras was one of the moft fingular characters that have figured in the revolution. De fcended from a very ancient and noble family in Provence, and heir to the title of viscount, he entered young into the army; like most young noblemen, during the monarchy. Through a series of adventures that rendered him peculiarly remarkable, he rofe into notice, and became at last a decided partifan of

the revolutionifts. His invincibe courage extricated him more than once from very difficult and dangerous fituations. This qualification recommended him to the convention upon three trying occafions: on the 27th of July, 1794, when Robefpierre was overthrown; on the 20th of May, this year, when the infurgents of the fuburb of St. Antoine were fupprefled; and on the 5th of October, when the Parifians were fubdued. His courage and conduct on each of thefe emergercies were greatly ferviceable to the convention, and they now thought it prudent to place a man in the directory, in whofe attachment and intrepidity they could confide, and who, though not poffeffed of fplen did parts, knew how to command attention, and make himself feared, if not refpected. Syeyes is a name better known, perhaps, than that of any man in France, fince the breaking out of the revolution. Bred a clergyman, he made a diftinguifhed figure in that profeffion, and would probably have rifen to the firft ecclefiaftical dignities, had not the church been overturned as well as the ftate. He stood forth an able champion against the feizure of the clergy's revenues. He was, however, more confpicuous by the part he acted in favour of the revolution. From his ideas proceeded the famous declaration of the rights of man, and many other ftrong measures of the conftituent affembly. His opinions on government have always carried much influence; yet he has often been fufpected of indecifion on thefe matters. The dexterity with which he had weathered all the ftorms of the revolution, wherein fo many able men have been wrecked, fubjected him to the fufpicion of

having more pliancy than fortitude,
and of being rather a time-ferver;*
but by thofe who had obferved him
more narrowly, he was reputed
more cautious than timid, and feem-
ed lefs defirous of life itfelf, than
anxious to fee in what manner those
fupendous events would terminate,
in which he bore fo confiderable a
hare. He was by the rigid repub-
Licans confidered as a concealed
royalift; but the ftern and decifive
manner in which he voted for the
king's death ill-agrees with fuch a
fulpicion. Though fond of influ-
ence, and not eafily foiled in his
pretensions and efforts to prefcribe
in matters of opinion, yet he ftudi-
ouly avoided oftentibility, and left
to others the danger, as well as the
honour, of acting an open and ex-
plicit part; his known abilities
made him a valuable acquifition to
his party, but as he chofe to guide
unfeen he never appeared as a
leader; and his abfence from the
fied of action, on many important
occafions, had thrown a ftigma of
uncertainty upon his character,
which he farther confirmed by re-
fufing to accept of the high dignity
now conferred upon him. This
refufal occafioned fome perplexity.
Though Syeyes could not be charged
with the various enormities that
either preceded or followed the
king's death, yet his unequivocal
affent to this deed, and his connec-
tions with that fanguinary faction,
flyled the mountain, fufficiently re-
commended him to the jacobins and
terrorists, as a man whofe inclina-
tion, as well as extraordinary ta-
lents, fitted him for the higheft
trufts in their power to confer. His

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place, after fome intrigues and d'fficulties, was fupplied by Carnot, a man of whofe capacity the most brilliant proofs had appeared in the arrangement and direction of military affairs, during the three preceding campaigns. To him was originally attributed the confiant fuccefs that attended the arms of the republic. He was in the cabinet what the celebrated Folard had been in the field; an oracle to all the generals that confulted him, and the author of thofe multifarious plans, in executing which they rofe themfelves to fuch celebrity: though bred in the army, and, in the progrefs of the revolution, neceflarily connected with Robefpierre, in the time of his exaltation, yet he was wholly guiltlefs of his barbarities, and was only known by his utility to the public, which now beheld his preferment with general fatis faction.

Thefe four members of the directory were avowedly of the ruling party, which would willingly have added another out of their own body; but the fear of difobliging the majority of the nation, by confining thefe honours entirely to themfelves, induced them to remit their partiality, and to allow a participation in the fupreme power to one of their rivals. The man thus diftinguished was Larevcillere Lepaux. He was profeffionally a lawyer, yet eminent not only for his parts, but his integrity; he was remarkable for the plainnefs of his manners, and his averfion to intrigue; his difpofition was calm and ftudious, and he had cultivated literature with uncommon fuccefs: he

Bertrand de Moleville affirms, that Syeyes was needy and defirous of coming over to the fide of the court, in 1789, on the condition of his being appointed to a rich bbacy; a matter which was in agitation, but neglected by the archbishop of Sens.



had been elected to a feat in the convention entirely from the excellence of his character; and had acted invariably from principle. During the tyranny of Robefpierre, he was profcribed with the adherents of the Gironde party, to which he remained firmly attached; and his life was perpetually in danger. He would have declined the honour profferred him; and he accepted it merely in compliance with the earneft folicitations of the worthieft men in the minority.

There was a man who did not view thefe individuals fo highly promoted without fecret indignation; and who thought himself greatly neglected by his party, in not feating him in the directory. This was the famous Tallien, who had acted to confpicuous a part ever fince the abolition of monarchy, and had fignalized his courage in effecting the downfal of Robefpierre, at a time when few men had the boldnefs perfonally to encounter him. He was, in fact, at the head of the ruling party; but he had a number of fecret enemies, who did not with to fee him fo much exalted. His abilities and his spirit were unqueftionable, but though he had fo materially contributed to deftroy Robefpierre, he had acted with him, and was fuppofed to have abetted his conduct, till he was compelled to accelerate his deftruction to fave himfelf. He was in high favour with the terrorifts, notwithftanding that he had endeavoured to ingratiate himself with the moderates; but he was always fufpected by them; and be verified their fufpicions by joining with their adverfaries against the unhappy Parifians, on the fifth of October, in fupport of the decree for a re-elec

tion of two-thirds of the conven tion. His ambitious views were rendered manifeft by the part he openly took in favour of that commiffion of five, which was to fupercede the intended conftitution, and and to engrofs the whole government. Of that commiffion he had the addrefs to procure himself to be nominated a member; and he had alfo the audacity to load with invectives perfons of irreproachable character in the convention, and to infinuate, that without fuch a commiffion the country was not fafe. But his behaviour on this occafion had, it feems, exafperated both the parties. When the majority of the convention became, through dint of argument, con vinced of the fcandalous impropriety of that commiffion, Tallien loft at once almost all his influence; and, inftead of a place in the directory, faw himself excluded from the hope of obtaining any poft of importance. To this it may be added, that he was thought to have had a hand in the mallacres of September, 1792, and in thofe of La Vendée. All thefe confiderations operated fo much to his difadvantage, that, though he had been occafionally a ufeful agent to the republic; he had acquired no confidence nor efteem, and was viewed as a man governed by no other principles than thofe of the most iniquitous ambition.

There were others of his party no lefs afpiring than himself; but much the fame objections militated against them. It appeared, in truth, that the ruling party was inclined rather to eftablish its principles, than to inveft its chiefs with much authority. Their perfonal difpofitions were too much dreaded, and too well known, to command implicit


reliance on the self-denying principles they now fo carefully profeffed. For this reafon it was judged more confiftent with the public peace and fecurity, to fix them in fecondary employments, than to conftitute then the principal perfonages in the republic. Louvet, Legendre, Freron, Cambaceres, to mention no others, were individuals who anf wered exactly this defcription. Full of courage and parts, but no lefs of artifice and tergiverfation, they had on feveral occafions acted undauntedly and faithfully for the fervice of the ftate; but they had alfo exhibited fo much unfteadiness in their principles, and fuch variations in their conduct, that they had forfeited that confidence which can only be fecured by an unqueftionable ftability in both.

The members of the directory were inftalled in their high offices with great pomp. Guards and all the magnificence of royalty were annexed to them; and their appearance in public, and upon days of audience, was in a ftyle of grandeur, nothing differing from that of the fovereigns of Europe. To a great number of people this was very acceptable; it retraced the former fplendor of the monarchy, and encouraged thofe arts that conduce to the elegance of focial life. It alío proved an incentive to thofe ambitious fpirits, whofe chief motive for exerting their abilities is the profpect of rifing to fuch perfonal diftinctions as may point them out to the gaze of the multitude; and the number of these is much more confiderable in France than, apparently, in any other country of Europe. During the regal government, a prodigious proportion of the military had no other reward to

expect for their fervices than external decoration; and fuch was the temper of the French, that the highest value was fet upon them, and they were prefered to more substantial recompence. To preserve such a fpirit, appeared worthy of confideration to those who framed the new conftitution; but there were others who profefled an utter diflike to what they called the relics of royalty: they viewed them as incentives and temptations to restore it, and would willingly have banish ed all formalities from the exercise of government, and have stripped it of every appendage that was not indifpenfably requifite for the tranfaction of bufinefs. These were the rigid republicans, who were ge nerally men of auftere manners, foes to expenfive gayeties, and defirous to reduce both public and private life to the rules of the plainest fimplicity; through their influence, tifles had been abolished, and the forms of focial intercourfe divested of complimentary phrafes; no dif tinctions remained but thofe of pub lic functions, and even to thofe no epithets were added; the official appellation was deemed fufficient, and to covet more was reputed the mark of a vain and frivolous difpo fition. To these men the superb ceremonial that encompaffed the directory was extremely odious, and they laboured all in their power to depreciate it in the estimation of the public. The maxims they had fo zealoufly inculcated came now to their aid; having for years inveighed against the luxurious pomp of courts, they had taught the people to look upon it as the trappings of vanity, purchased at the expenfe of the community. In purfuance of thefe maxims, their pro

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