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sis (if accurate,) as the silicious earth predominates considerably.

If transparencies and lustre fhould rather be taken as a title of admifsion, then many species of shorl must be received into the first order, instead of the second, where I have only ventured to place them.

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Or fhould specific gravity be employed as a test, still greater inconsistency would ensue; for one of the first mineralogists of the age has lately rejected the amethyst, because its inferior specific gravity, (only from 2.6 to 2.7,) led him to suspect that gem to be of a different nature, and even opposite to the rest; but the same reasoning has not led him to admit the garnet, although its specific gravity is from 3.6 to 4.188; and some of its varieties of great value, beauty, and public estimation, such as the Syrian garnet, of a colour between the amethyst and ruby, the amethystezontas of the ancients, and rock ruby of the moderns.

The soranus of the ancients, likewise, a beautiful red garnet, inclining a little to yellow, a variety of which, with a brownish tint, from Groenland, is sold by the jewellers for a hyacinth.

Equal objections would lay against admitting internal construction as a test; for, in that case, the beautiful ruby-coloured fhorl, lately discovered in Siberia by Mr Hermon, described in my second order, must be received; as its texture is lamelar, exactly like that of the finer gems, as is the green transparent fhorl, lately found by Laxman in the same country.

And as to external form of crystallization, so long held by writers as the great distinguishing character, I can produce from my own collection, in the genus of fhorl alone, specimens affecting the crystallization of most of the finest gems.

After this little disquisition, I hope I shall find excuse for not adhering to any one distinguishing character yet devised by mineralogists; but forming my two orders from the value, beauty, rarity, and public estimation of gems, under the restrictisons mentioned above.

By the above description of my table, Mr Editor, you will see that it cannot be upon a very small scale, although still contained in a large fheet of paper; so that, fhould it prove too extensive for the Bee, you have my permission to print it separately, and dispose of it with, or without the number of your work, containing its explanation, as the taste of your different subscribers may lead to have them separately or together*. Yours,

Imperial Corps of Noble Cadets in St Peterburgh, Feb. 20. 1792.



* The Editor has found it necefsary, for the convenience of folding up, to alter the disposition of the parts a little. Instead of the tabular form, which is always troublesome in a small sized book, he has arranged it under distinct heads, containing precious stones of the first and of the second orders. Each denomination of stones, then, forms a distinct class, in which follows, in order,-The names, ancient and modern.Hardness and specific gravity, including the whole range of each class, as far as they have been ascertained, -Varieties, and analysis, in which is included all the particulars respecting each variety, as far as they have Deen yet ascertained; in this department, the following abbreviations occur: VOL. Xiii.


For the Bee.

Ir is the glory and characteristic of the laws of Great Britain, that they put the lives, the liberties, and properties, of the great body of the people, on a more certain footing, than the laws of any other state or nation in the universe. In Britain, every man is considered as a constituent member of the state; and every member of the state enjoys equal protection and security. It is this freedom and security, which has raised the yeomanry of Great Britain, to a degree of importance and estimation, which they enjoy in no other state.

If there is a single trace of feudal tyranny and despotism now remaining among us, it is in the game laws. It is owing to this sort of despotism being so deeply rooted in the constitution of the feudal kingdoms, that it has continued to flourish so long and so vigorously. The severity of the forest laws are well known. Almost all the English princes, from the time of the Conquest, were great hunters. William the conqueror, himself, was fond of the chace, [1999.] His son, William Rufus, it is well

H. hardness; Sp. Gr. specific gravity; Arg. argillacious; Sil. silicious; Cal. calcareous earhs; M. denoting mild; C. caustic, or calx, when joine ed with an earth or metal; Ir. iron; Bar. barytes; Mag. magnesia; Nik. nikel. To these are added, the name of the person who had made analysis. Particulars that have not yet been ascertained, are always left un-filled up.-Form.-Structure.-Largest.--Where found.-Value and uses, Under each head, all the particulars respec.ing it, are severally arranged.

known, lost his life hunting in the new forest in Hampshire. It is not to be wondered, then, that the laws made for the preservation of game fhould be severe and oppressive. A mitigation of some of these laws constitutes a material part of the great. charter obtained from king John; [1215;] and a farther explanation of them, exprefsly constitutes what was called the charter of forests, obtained from the same prince.

Many of our Scottish princes were also pafsionately fond of the chace. Alexander II. was killed by a fall from his horse, when hunting in Fifeshire; [1285] James v. was fond of hunting; and his grandson, James VI. was a perfect Nimrod. The equivocal disaster which he is said to have met with at Perth, [1599,] from the earl of Gowry and his brother, happened when he was hunting near that place.

When the feudal princes took so much delight in this amusement, it was natural for the great lords and barons to follow their example. Accordingly, many of them had hunting forests, secured by the same laws and regulations as the princes had theirs. Great hunting matches were the proudest exhibitions of their grandeur, wealth, and power. Some of these fetes continued so late as the reign of queen Elizabeth; and part of the entertainments furnished to her majesty, on the memorable visit fhe paid to her favourite, the magnificent earl of Leicester [about 1570,] is said to have consisted of hunting match


Indeed, it must be acknowledged, that the fatigues and exploits of the chace, are perhaps the most natural pastimes, for a warlike prince, and martial nobility, in the intervals of peace. In those days learning was neglected, trade was held in contempt, and even agriculture was held in little estimation; the great body of the people were slaves, devoted to the will and pleasure of their su periors.

But by degrees the principles of the British constitution began to gather strength. Literature was cultivated; trade was followed and protected; and agriculture was honoured and esteemed. The liberty and property of the people were secured by law; and, at length, the constitution of this country came to be, what it is at present, the pride of its own people, and the admiration of foreign nations. Then every man fould say, "My house is my castle; my farm is my garrison, into which no man has right to enter without my permifsion."

At this time it would scarcely be imagined that the game laws fhould be a disgrace on the Britifa statute book. Nor would it readily be imagined, that it should be enacted into a law, in the mild and enlightened reign of George III. [1770 stat. 10. cap. 19.]" that all persons killing game, on any pretence whatever, above an hour before sun-rise, or after sun-set, fhall, without respect to sex or quality, and without any alternative or redemption, be committed to prison for three months at least ; and be publicly whipt at noon day, in the prison where the town is situated."

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