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he has published some accounts; and every friend to supereminent virtue must join in wishing that the venerable count, though now septuagenary, may live many years, to taste of that, which awaits his memory, to a distant posterity.

Frederick the Great, and Hertfberg, recal to our remembrance the glorious friendship of Henry of Bourbon, and of Sully; and their joint labours for the happiness of Frenchmen: but with this superiority on the side of the former pair, that they created, (as it were,) a new kingdom, and a new people; and established, or at least greatly promoted, a new era in Europe, in science and in politics.

A Voltaire, a d'Alembert, a Euler, a Bernoulli, a Condorcet, fostered by a monarch, would alone have been sufficient to have rendered his memory and his glory perpetual; but when to this we add a Hertfberg, and a whole host of patriots, nursed under his care, we fhall not be able to discover in the annals of mankind any thing approaching to the age of Frederick II.

These considerations and legitimate encomiums are incontrovertible.

They come from a remote corner of the unconquered Caledonia, now dazzling like a little brilliant star among the nebulous constellations of great nations, by whose greatnefs and refinement fhe was formerly eclipsed.

It is a proud thing to gaze upon the growing splendour of one's family, or one's country! Pleasing to record, as now, the virtues of an illustrious patriot! A. B, C.

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Continued from p. 168.

Clafs ninth.




VIOLET of different fhades. That inclining to a ROSE COLOUR is most esteemed.

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That of the oriental amethyst is the same as the sapphire, viz. hexagonal pyramids or columns. We are better acquainted with the form of the occidental, which is hexagonal prisms, fharply pointed, with six facets, sometimes in groups, like the Peru emerald, on a basis of quartz.

Structure, Properties, &c.

The texture is nearly granular according to Kirvan; but other writers pronounce it lamellar, like the other gems. Electric on friction. It loses its colour in a strong heat; but does not melt per se; though with borax it gives a colourlefs glafs, No chemical analysis of this stone has been as yet made, that we know of; although not more rare than the others.

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Where found.

They are found in Persia, Arabia, America, the West Indies, Spain, Saxony, Bohemia, Italy, &c. Russia is rich in this gem; but the Ural and Altai mountains furnish the best. They are found in many places in the Highlands of Scotland; some of great size, and perfectly clean; sometimes adhering to rock chrystal. And some have been found plaited or crusted upon black chrystal, of considerable thicknefs, which, when struck with a hammer, separates, leaving the black chrystal in its regular form of six sides. The best Scots amethysts are from Invercauld and Strathspey; some from Cairngorum, &c.

How valued.

The oriental are valued with rubies. The occi, dental are valued by Wallerius at three or four dollars per carat. The Rufsian are sold at from fifteen to thirty rubles a ring stone, according to size, co❤ lour, beauty, &c.

Clafs tenth, *GARNET.

HARDNESS from 10 to 12; SPECIFIC GRAVITY from 3,6 to 4,4.


GARNET dark red. The SYRIAN or ROCK RUBY, (the AMETHYSTIZONTAS of the ancients,) a purplish red. The VERMEILLE of the French, (or SORANUS of the ancients,) red with a cast of yellow. The VIOLET garnet of a beautiful red mixed with vio Jet.


BOHEMIAN GARNET, Sp Gr 4,4; Arg 30; Sil 48'; Cal 12; Ir 10 MARTIAL, Arg 27,6; Sil 43,6; Cal 10; Ir 19 t.

VESUVIAN, Arg 39; Sil 55; Cal 6.


The form is a globular polygon, varying in the number of its sides; but sometimes rhomboidal or irregular.

Structure, Properties, &c.

Texture laminar. Electric on friction. It melts per se into a slag attractable by the magnet. Where found.

The Syrian garnet of a fine red, inclining to purple, the amethystizontas of the ancients, and rubinovi rocca of Italy, (from which our English name of rock ruby,) is the most esteemed of all the species, and is found in Syria, Calcutta, Cananor, Cambaya and Ethiopia. The vermeille of the French, and the giacinto guarnacino of the Italians, (a name which well defines it colour,) is the fine red garnet inclining to yellow, (the soranus of the ancients,) so called from Sorian or Surian in Pegu, where it was then found, and is so still. When this same gem has a cast of brown, it is sold and named a hyacinth. The occidental garnets are commonly of a deep red colour, and softer. Found in Bohemia, the hardest and finest; Hungary, Silesia, Bern, Spain, and Norway, likewise produce them; and Scotland furnishes a very good sort, though not large, in general, from a micaceous stone. Vesuvius furnishes a

* Achard.

†They sometimes contain tin, or even lead, but this seldom. Bergman.

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white polygon globular stone resembling exactly the garnet species, and ranked with them till lately, that it was rejected on account of its containing no iron, the difficulty with which it melts, even with the aid of fluxes, and its superior hardness. Rufsia produces a great variety of garnets, although but few that merit the name of gems. However, now that the white Vesuvian is rejected from the species, the yellowish white garnet, lately discovered by Mr Laxman in Siberia, stands single and alone of its kind, till chemical analysis fhall displace it. Found of a globular polygon form in an argillaceous heatitical matrix, covering a basaltic mountain on the river Vitui, near the mouth of the Achtaragda. These garnets are found, together with a new discovered fhorl, described in its proper place in the next order; some of them sticking in the fhorl; and even the smaller of these white garnets are sometimes found adhering to the larger, or set in them, in a manner like stones in a ring. Red garnets are found near the lake Baikal, the sources of the lower Ude, &c. and there are brought a number from the granite mountain of Siberia near Selenga. They are found at Fortsoy in Scotland, embedded in quartz, some an inch and a half in diameter, but seldom clean. From Inverary they are not so large.

How valued.

Authors make no mention of the price of garnets, or give any mode of calculating their value. They only tell us that the Syrian is sold as a ruby, under the name of rubinus Rufsium; and the vermielle as a hyacinth.

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