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stance from the Cape they are first seen, and when they = first disappear.
7 The head, jaws, or teeth, of the different species of fharks that may be caught upon the voyage to be perserved:
8. Also the different flying fishes.
9. It is much to be wished, that one of the small fishes which always accompany the blue shark, called the pilotfish, might be caught and preserved.
10. Wherever the cable or sounding line is used, it fhould be carefully examined when hove into the ship, as there are frequently found curious animals adhering to both.
11. Between the Cape and Madagascar, and in other parts of the India voyage, various sea-animals can be easily taken on board, such as what the sailors call Portuguese men of war, and others, to be preserved, if possible, in paper or in spirits.
12. If the ship touches either at Madagascar or the island of Johanna, there are many curious fofsils, plants, and animals which may be preserved.
13. At Bombay many interesting articles may be obtained, which are there articles of commerce from Surat and the Gulph of Persia :-Drugs, the different gums and resins, the largest pearl oysters, or mother of pearl, and tortoise shells the sandalum album, or white sandal wood, and ebony the fine red Persian ochre, called at Bombay Indian red: the skins of the zebra, Persian lamb-skins, jackall, leopard, panthers, and other Asiatic quadrupeds; also the horns, and if possible the heads, of the different antelopes and gazelles.
14. At Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta, to collect specimens of every fossil even of the most common, that come within reach. To visit often the fhops of the lapi
daries, where all the finest lethidia, chalcedony, cornelian, onyx, sardonyx, a,ate, mocho, c. are cut in great quantities, and sold very cheap.
15. To inquire at Madras concerning the new cochineal discovered y D Anderson, and to preserve and send home, the species of grafs on which it feeds.
16. At Calcutta to preserve good specimens with the flower, of all the important plants of the country, and as much of their history as pofsible.
17. To be attentive especially to all the productions of China which may be brought there, whether fofsil, vegetable, or animal.
18. To collect at Calcutta, fhells, corals, corallines, sponges, and other fine marine productions which are brought there from all parts of India.
19. To collect all the fine insects, wherever they occur. Fine collections are to be purchased at an easy rate. I fhould particularly recommend preserving them in paper books, in preference to preserving them loose, or upon pins. The fresh insect may be placed in folds of paper, and prefsed for a day or two with a sufficient weight, when they will be dry and sufficiently prepared; even those which have been preserved on pins, when put for two minutes in spirits, may then be prefsed and dryed in the same manner.
20. To inquire particularly at Calcutta concerning the great quadruped, called by the English, a bufalo, but by the natives the arnee*. It does not come lower upon the Ganges, than about the plain of Plafsey. It is said to be about fourteen feet high, and is a superb animal, whose
See an account of this animal Bee vol. xii. p. 193.
history is as yet unknown in Europe. As also every particular that can be learned concerning the chittigong cows, whose tails are used as fly flaps in India
21. To pick up as often as you can find them, skins of all quadrupeds, especially those animals noted for any valuable peculiarity; being very careful to mark down as many particulars respecting their natural history as you can learn, and the uses that are made of them in economy or arts. These skins if dried, and laid back to back with some ground pepper between them, and a few small grains of camphor, may be easily brought safe to Europe.
ADDITION TO THE MEMORIAL ON THE SALT DUTIES
FROM the foregoing state of facts it, appears that the duty, payable to the revenue on a barrel of beef or pork in England, is, at the present time,
For one bushel of home-made salt, £. 050
- O 10
if for home-consumption, in both countries, or for fhip provisions, no duty or drawback being allowed on
Irish beef, if brought to England, pays a duty of one fbilling per barrel on exportation in Ireland; and, say, one fhilling more for freight: At that rate, a barrel of Irish beef can be afforded in England, 7s. 11d. cheaper than a barrel of British cured beef--the prime cost of the meat being supposed the same.
A British barrel of beef contains 32 gallons; an Irish barrel ony 28: therefore, if equally well packed, the British barrel will contain 28 lib. more than the Irish barrel; which, at 3d. per lib. is 75. An Irish barrel of beef, therefore, may be afforded for fhips provisions, at the rate of 16s. 114d. cheaper than an English barrel of ditto, supposing the fresh meat had cost in both cases threepence per pound.
Irish beef imported into Britain, pays no duty to the British revenue; but a barrel of British ditto pays 10s. 2d. And as there remains in the barrel, about half-a bushel of salt after the beef is taken out, which is good for culinary purposes, the duty on which would be at least 2s. 6d. The British revenue, at this rate, loses 12s. 8d. for every barrel of Irish beef and pork imported into Britain, or consumed in fhips provisions, which it would have drawn if British salt-meat had been used in its stead. We thus may be said to have given a bounty of 12s. 8d, on every barrel of Irish beef consumed by British subjects, with a view to give them a monopoly of this branch of trade a gainst ourselves.
It has been shown (page 214) that about 156,000 barrels of Irish beef and pork are annually consumed in Britain; and, computing fhips provisions to equal that, it
would be 312,000 barels per annum; the bounty of which amounts, at the above rate, to 197,600l. per annum : What good reason can be afsigned, why Britain fhould sacrifice so much for reprefsing her own agriculture and manufuctures?
T. K. sends a pretty exhord say on education, which our
room did not permit us to insert. Among other particulars he observes, that "A man without education is like a watch without wheels, for it is impofsible he can fill any station of life without it." And again, "How does an ignorant person look in a learned company? He looks like a fool without either sense or judgement; for he does not know what they are speaking about, &c." I know few words the meaning of which are lefs generally understood in Scotland than EDUCATION. In general it seems to be applied, as here, to what is commonly called learning, which in its turn is almost as much wrested from its original meaning, and is now almost exclusively applied to the acquisition of foreign languages, a thing which in itself, deserves not the name of learning; but is merely a scaffolding by means of which knowledge may be attained.
Were I to give a definition of learning, I should call it the acquisition of knowledge; and were I to specify what education fhould perform, it would be to put a person in the right train of acquiring useful knowledge. In that sense the acquisition of language may have its share. But much useful knowledge may be attained without that: by consequence a man may have obtained a very good education without having been taught any other language than his mother tongue. A man of sense never will look like a fool, unless when he departs from his real character, and attempts to afsume another, and then he does not look like a fool only, but actually is a fool in that instance. No one will ever be blamed by persons of commou sense for not knowing things that his situation in life and circumstances did not put within his reach; but he may be blamed for acting foolishly if he attempts to learn what his circumstances do not put within his reach, and what if he had at-. tained, by having deprived him of the means of earning a proper subsistence, has rendered him a dependent, and consequently a mean and despicable animal. How many men may be found in Scotland who have got what fools call a good education, who have been thus