« TrướcTiếp tục »
they have some chance of supplying these articles for that consumption, which in the present situation of matters, it is impofsible they can have, for the reasons above afsigned.
4. Another considerable disadvantage the curers of provisions for exportation in Britain are under, is, That no barrel is entitled to any drawback whatever, unless it contains 32 gallons English wine measure, and half-barrels in proportion. The memorialists do not know whether any Acts of Parliament in England specify the quantity of beef and pork to be packed in each barrel; but the Scots Act, 1st Queen Anne, sect. iii. cap. 5. which enacts, That each barrel fhall contain 8 gallons Scotch measure, being a little more than 28 gallons English wine measure only, requires 220 lib. well pined beef or pork to be packed in each barrel. And it is somewhat extraordinary, that the 8th article of the Union, by which the drawback on exportation of 5s. per barrel is granted to Scotland, is wholly silent both as to the size of the barrels, and quantity to be packed therein: And the British Act, 5th Geo. I. cap. xviii. sect. 15. which enacts, That,
as the herring-barrels contain only 8 gallons 2 pints Scotch measure, which is only 29 gallons 3 pints 1 gill English measure, they fhall, after the 1st June 1719, be the same all over Britain, and contain 32 gallons,” -relates only to the size of barrels used in packing herrings, without taking any notice of the size of those of beef and pork nor, so far as the memorialists know, has there been any Act of Parliament since, relative to the size of such barrels. It would appear, therefore, that the barrel of 8 gallons Scotch measure required by the Act of Queen Anne to contain 200 lib. well-pined beef or pork, is entitled, in Scotland, to the drawback of 55. on exportation : But the contrary practice has crept in ; as no barrel con
taining beef or pork is allowed the drawback. unless it be 32 gallons English wine measure. A barrel of 28 gallons English wine measure, will contain 200 lib. of well-pined beef and pork; and there is just that quantity packed into the barrels used in Ireland, which at the same time never contain more than 28 gallons. If, therefore, it is not necessary to pack more than 200 lib. well pined beef or pork in a barrel; and if a barrel of 28 gallons will contain that quantity, which there is not a doubt of; why should not the British merchant be allowed to use barrels of that size, and to recover the drawback upon exportation, in the proportion they bear t 32 gallons? If he is not allowed to use such, one of these consequences must naturally follow, either that the provisions must be loosely packed, which is very pernicious; or otherwise, that from 25 to 30 lib. more beef or pork than an Irish barrel contains, must be packed into each British barrel containing 32 gallons. But the barrel containing 28 gallons only, is found from experience to be the most handy and convenient at a foreign market; and, strange as it may appear, it is cer rain, that great complaints are made of British barrels in the West Indies, on account of their size only, although they contained from 25 to 30 lib. more beef than the Irish barrels, and have been sold at the current price of the latter; it is a great discouragement therefore to the British merchant to be obliged to pack 25 or 30 lib. more beef in his barrel, while at the same time, instead of receiving any advantage therefrom at a market, he experiences the reverse, on account of their size, and unhandinefs.
The Memorialists beg leave further to notice that a barrel of beef salted for home consumption, pays about 10s. duty on salt to the revenue; whereas a barrel of beef from Ireland, pays only Is. duty to the revenue of Ireland on salt, and none to the revenue of Britain on its import VOL. Xvii.
ation and consumption here; so that there is a premium of 8s. per barrel, which Irish beef consumed in Britain, has over that of Britain
It is further to be observed, that after consuming a barrel of beef or pork cured with foreign salt, there is found in the barrel, at an average, about a quarter of a bushel of unconsumed salt. The duty on this quantity is about 2s. 6d. which the revenue loses on Irish beef and pork, consumed in Britain; as this salt is used, and very proper for calinary purposes.
The memorialists have stated the disadvantages under which the British merchant at present labours, in curing beef or pork, either for exportation, the use of his ships on their voyages, or home consumption: And they hum, bly hope they are only necefsary to be pointed out, to induce the Legislature to give the necefsary redrefs and relief, especially for the two first mentioned objects; as nothing is more certain, than that this branch of trade, if an adequate and proper encouragement is given to it, will not only greatly advantage the revenue in the duties upon salt, but there will also be much money kept in the country, which is sent elsewhere for salted provisions, tallow, and hides; and, in time, these two last articles, so necefsary to the poor, after being manufactured into soap, candles, and fhoes, &c. will thereby become cheaper in Great Britain.
Your memorialists, therefore, humbly pray your Lordfhips, to take the premises into consideration; and that your Lordships will be pleased to give your countenance and support to a bill, which may put the merchant who cures beef or pork, upon the same footing with the curers of herrings, as to the duties upon sult; allowing him, in the same manner, to receive home-made salt from the pans, and foreign
salt from the cellars, where it may be lodged under the joint custody of the impor er and officer of the revenue, to be used for curing beef or pork for exportation, or for the use of the navy, or merchants fhips in their voyages ; under such oaths and regulations, and under such penalties as fhall be thought proper. And more particularly, that, for the benefit of the revenue, there fhall be paid for every barrel of 28 gallons, containing salted beef in pickle, 15.; and of pork, 1s. 6d.; and so in proportion for casks of a larger or lefser size: And that for each cwt. of dried flesh, there fhall be paid a duty of 4d.
NEW DISCOVERIES RESPECTING THE
HE reader may perhaps recollect that in the second volume of the Bee, p. 101 many hints were given of the uses that might be made of the Caoutchouc, or elastic gum as it has been called in arts. As that gum cannot however be got in Europe in its fluid state, we have not as yet had it in our power to apply it to almost any of the purposes there mentioned; but men by turning their attention to that object, begin to find that it may, by various contrivances be converted to some use. The following are instances of this sort.
Hand's patent leather.
A gentleman of the name of Hand in Birmingham, as I am informed, has of late obtained a patent for preparing leather in a certain way that he has discovered, by
means of which, leather is said to be rendered perectly impervious to water, and when soiled, requires only to be wiped with a spunge to restore it to its original lustre. The glaze and polish of that leather is indeed surpri singly fine, and far exceeds any thing of the sort we have en. where the flexibility of the leather is preser ved. This glasing we are afsured consists of nothing else than a varnish made of caoutchouc in oil of turpentine or some other oil, and then exposing it to the air until the oil be entirely evaporated. This, though a much. more expensive procefs than the employing the native juice by itself, and probably much lefs perfect also than that would be, may still be of use in many cases.
Leather prepared as above is so much enhanced in price, as to render a pair of thoes made of it about nine fhillings dearer than if made of common leather, which must necessarily confine the use of it to a very few only.
Pieces of Caoutchouc cemented into an uniform mafs.
As all the modes that have yet been discovered of making a solution of this gum, so as to permit it to be employed in a fluid state, are attended with great expence, various efforts have been made to try if the gum in its solid state could be so moulded as to be applied to economical uses, and in consequence of attention and repeated experiments, one gentleman has at length succeeded so far as to be able to join pieces of it together, which adhere so firmly as that if overstretched it will give way as readily in the solid parts as at the joining, and by that means he thinks many uses may be made of it. His process is very simple and not expensive.
The caou.chouc is brought over to Europe in the form of small bottles. He takes one of these bottles, and with a sharp instrument cuts it down into a long spiral slice, sọ as to form one continued narrow ribbon, if you please to give it that name. He then puts it in boiling water for the