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To nature, on earth, a fhort visit we pay,
Tho' you told the clock twelve, mark the hand! that's at three,
"Till ev❜ning, and then, who'd have thought it so late?
AN ACCOUNT OF PERSIAN COTTON,
Being a translation of a paper presented to the royal econo mical society of SPeterburgh by Mr
ALLOW me to have the honour of presenting to you some grains of cotton seed. This seed is gathered principally in Persia, and is bought in the markets, from the peasants, who bring it in small packets, from half a pound to two or three pounds. It is even difficult to collect any quantity of it; and it cost the person who furnished me with this sample, a great deal of time and trouble to col lect three poods, which cost him nearly 3000 rubles.
The sale of this seed is not unknown at Smyrna ; but what you see here, gentlemen, was bought from Boucharian merchants trading with Rufsia, and it is besides of a superior quality to what is found commonly at Smyrna, from whence the French obtained it formerly to cultivate in their colonies, as well as the Maltese, who have also reaped so much advantage from it among their rocks, that it is to be feared their sweet oranges, so famous, and which were very lucrative to them, will soon disappear, although the only production of traffic, till within these few years, of their burning and barren rocks, to give place to another kind of cultivation as useful, and a great deal more profitable.
The Portuguese have sent this seed to Brazil, where its cultivation has had a wonderful succefs, in a climate and soil perfectly adapted to its production, so much so, that in a few years, the plant, by the constant and continued attention of her ministers, flourished so well that it
may be compared with the golden fleece of the Greeks. It is this, gentlemen, that has induced me to give you this information, and to lay before you the great occasional, though important consequences, that result from the researches of men who reflect, who discover, and who communicate,
It may be asked what is my conclusion from this fact? There it is. The Portuguese nation, formerly born down by a balance of trade quite against her, had drained all her treasures. France, Germany, Holland, and especially England, pofsefsed them, if we may be allowed the exprefsion, before ever they had sent them from America, and from the east coast of Africa. Her gold was found every where; it was even in my time the most common current specie over all Great Britain, and in all her colonies. From one end to the other of England all payments were generally made in moidures of Portugal; they abounded even when guineas were rare, and really difficult to be got; but in proportion as that nation embraced more and more the cultivation of sugar, and especially of cotton, the balance of trade has taken a change. She now pays the manufactures of the north with these new raw productions; and their gold by little and little diminished, and finally disappeared entirely from foreign countries. And I maintain, that, if it were allowed to me to enter into a like detail, to fhow that this seed is more precious and more useful to them than their mines of gold and of diamonds, and perhaps will make her directly shut for ever both the one and the other, and never to set a foot on the banks of the Gambia, or at Mosambique; but to pursue afsiduously the two objects of which I have been speaking. It would be then that they might with truth sing their Tagus auri, their Tagus with golden sands. Such are the inestimable fruits of industry, and of the
useful researches of true philosophers, which conduct men to their solid happiness, in their industry, in their labours, for which their creator has formed and destined them.
The Rufsian empire contains climates and soils perfectly proper for this cultivation. I declare to you, gentlemen, that if I had the means, I fhould be even jealous to see any one going before me in putting the first hand to it. I am with a very profound respect, Gentlemen. c.
LITERARY OLLA. No. x
For the Bee.
Gray the Poet,A dialogue concerning Youth..
Walpole. I see you are a close and faithful disciple of Locke; but may it not be plausibly objected to his system, that he begins with that which ought to be the final purpose and finishing stroke of education.
Gray. I think not. I rather conceive that the objection arises from an incorrect view of the subject.
The very vocable exprefsive of instructing young people (I believe in most languages,) is explanatory of Mr Locke's system, and of my meaning. Education is in its significant analysis, a leading, or a drawing forth of the elements of reason, for the establishment of a reasonable, useful, and benevolent creature, in a prudent and respectable member of human society.
By observing the discourse and actions of children, it may easily be perceived that they begin to exercise the faculty of combining their ideas, of comparing, one with the other the objects of their immediate attention, and arranging these things according to the design they have concieved.
Such is the first effort of reason, which is nothing more than the faculty of arranging.
If it so happens that children are defective in their combinations, this defect generally arises from their want of attention to some intermediate idea which their eagerness made them lose sight of, though it is often an idea very simple in its nature, and much within the extent of their capacities. This is the important moment to suggest this idea to them, and they will speedily, of their own accord, correct their reasoning.
In this manner, in my opinion, children may be taught to reason by reasoning with them. We too much undervalue the capacities of children, and too highly over-rate
Suppose a child to be scrawling on some paper, and that he makes an attempt at drawing the likeness of a man and a house.
He draws the man out of all proportion to the house.. Take him out of doors, and let him see his error. He then begins to lay things together, and attempts to make these objects proportionate. How many results he may be made to draw from so simple an accident! and how much may not his rational faculties be enlarged by judicious management !
The next step, with respect to a child; and this you will think very strange, is to give him an idea of government; and I would give it him thus, He has a little message to go, and as a reward for his going it properly, I give him a bit of cake. A stronger boy ravishes it from him, and he comes to complain.
I call the other boys together, and I inquire into the truth of the matter. It is proven; and then I make the boys, in their turn, say whether they think the robber ought to be punished. They all agree that he robbed the child; and I punish the delinquent : but not till two days afterwards, that it may be done seriously and calmly, without the appearance of revenge. The boy who was robbed comes