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Papers relative to the Expedition to Copenhagen-and for certain Resolutions on that Subject.-Opposed by Mr. Canning-Mr. Milnes-Lord Lereson Gower-Lord Castlereagh, &c. &c.-Supported by Mr. Windham-and Mr. Whitbread. On a Division of the House negatived.--House of Peers.-Motion by the Duke of Norfolk for the Substance of all Communications respecting the State of the Danish Navy, and the Secret Articles of the Treaty of Tilsit.— Supported by Lord Hutchinson-The Earl of BuckinghamshireThe Earl of Moira-The Earl of Jersey-The Earl of St. VincentLord Sidmouth, &c. &c.-Opposed by the Marquis of WellesleyLord Borringdon-Lord Limerick, &c. &c.—Negatived.-Resolu tion moved by Lord Sidmouth for preserving the Danish Fleet in such a State that it might be eventually restored to Denmark.—After a Debate, the Motion negatived.-House of Commons.-Motion by Mr. Sheridan for the Correspondence which passed after the Capitulation of Copenhagen, between his Majesty's Ministers and the Court of Stockholm, relative to the retaining Possession of the Island of Zealand by a Swedish Army in Concert with His Majesty's Forces.-Supported by Mr. Windham-Mr. Ponsonby, &c. &c.— Opposed by Mr. Canning-negatived.-House of Lords.-Motion by the Earl of Darnley for an Address to His Majesty, stating that there was no Necessity for the Expedition against Copenhagen, &c.negatived.-Motion for an Address to his Majesty of an opposite Nature by Lord Elliot;-carried.-Conversation respecting the Detention and Condemnation of Danish Trading Vessels.-House of "Commons.-Baltic Expedition brought again into Discussion by Mr. Sharp-Motion for an Address to his Majesty to the same Effect as that of Lord Darnley's in the House of Lords.-Debate.-The Motion negatived.-House of Commons.-Motion by Lord Folkstone of the same tenour as that in the House of Lords by Lord Sidmouth, respecting the Danish Navy.-Supported and opposed on the usual Grounds by different Speakers;-negatived.-House of Lords.-Resolutions moved by Lord Sidmouth respecting the Ships detained in our Harbours previously to Hostilities.-Debate.-The Motion negatived. 19

CHA P. III.

Relations between Great Britain and Russia, with other Powers, particularly Russia-Motion in the House of Commons by Mr. Whitbread for sundry Papers relating to this Subject.-Motion by Mr. Whitbread after reviewing the Information now before the House, for entering immediately into a Negotiation for Peace.-Opposed by Mr. Ponsonby, Mr. Canning, &c. &c.-Supported by Mr. Sheridan-negatived.-Resolutions moved by Mr. Adam respecting the Law of Parliament.-Supported by Mr. Windham and Mr. Whitbread.Opposed by Mr. Canning, Mr. Perceval, Lord Castlereagh, and Mr. Sturges Bourne.-Expedition to the Dardanelles, brought into Dis

cussion

cussion in the House of Commons by Mr. W. Taylor.-Motion for sundry Papers relating to that Affair.-The Expedition defended by Mr. T. Grenville-Censured by Mr. Canning.-The previous Question put and carried..

CHAP. IV.

57

Commercial Warfare.-Orders of Council, a Subject of unusual keenness and pertinacity of Debate.-Motion for referring the Orders in Council respecting Neutral Trade to the Committee of Ways and Means.-Reiterated Debates in both Houses concerning both the Justice and Legality, and the Policy of the Measure.-Charges in the House of Commons of Injustice, Oppression, and Cruelty in the Conduct of the Marquis of Wellesley towards the Nabobs of Oude and Arcot, declared to be unfounded; and the Thanks of the House to the Marquis..

74

CHAP V.

The Budget.-The Irish Budget.-Mr. Perceval's New Plan of Exchanging Stock in the Public Funds for Annuities for Life.--Conditions on which a Sum of Money was advanced to Government, by the Bank of England....

• 95

CHAP. VI.

Flourishing State of the British Navy.-Army Estimates.-The Mutiny Bill.-Clause introduced for allowing an Option of enlisting into the Army for Life.-Debates on the comparative Advantages of enlisting for limited and unlimited Service in the Army.-Other new Clauses. -Establishment of a Local Militia.-Debates thereon.― Reversion Bill passed in the House of Commons.-Rejected by the Lords.Another Reversion Bill moved by Mr. Banks in the House of Commons.-Passed in both Houses.-Bill brought into the House of Commons by sir Samuel Romilly, for amending the Criminal Law respecting private Stealing in Contradistinction to Robbery.-Passed in that House.-Act for the better Administration of Justice in Scotland.-Annuities to the Judges of the Court of Session justiciary, and Exchequer of Scotland upon the Resignation of their Offices.-Act for regulating the augmentation and modification of the stipends of the clergy in Scotland —Acts for making more effectual Provision for the Building and Re-building of Churches, Chapels, and Glebe Houses; and for the Purchase of Glebe Lands, Glebe Houses, and Impropriations in Ireland; and for enforcing the Residence of spiritual Persons in Ireland, on their Benefices.-Curates Bill--Catholic

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Petition.-Grant to Maynooth College.-An Act to prohibit the Diatillation of Spirits from Corn or Grain for a limited Time.-Debates thereon.-Affairs of Spain.-Prorogation of Parliament ....

CHAP. VII.

107

Buonaparte intent on the Subjugation of Spain, by a combined Plan of Treachery and Force.-Divisions and Distractions in the Royal Family of Spain.-French Troops poured into Spain - Spanish Ambassador at Paris, returns to Madrid with Instructions from Buonaparte.-A Conference between him and the King and Queen.-Preparations of the Royal Family to emigrate to Mexico.- General Mu rat advances with his whole Army to occupy Madrid.—Ferdinand VII. solicitous to conciliate the Favour of Buonaparte.-Report of Buonaparte's being on his way to the Spanish Capital.-Ferdinand persuaded to go to Burgos to meet him, and drawn on to Bayonne ; whither all the rest of the Royal Family of Spain are also attracted.— Circumstances co-incident in point of Time with these Intrigues.— Description of the Frontier of Spain.-Fortresses and other Positions occupied by French Troops.-On what Pretences.-Report that the King was preparing to leave Aranjuez, with a View to Emigration.— Insurrection at Aranjuez.-The Prince of the Peace arrested and imprisoned. Charles IV. abdicates his Throne in favour of the Prince of Asturias.—Proclaimed King under the Name of Ferdinand VII.-First Acts of Ferdinand's Reign.-Arrival and Reception of Murat at Madrid.—An Occurrence at Barcelona of a nature most suspicious and alarming to the Spaniards.-Patriotism of Count Espellata, Governor General of Catalonia.-Effects produced by the Journey of Ferdinand to Bayonne on the public Mind.—Interference of Murat, at the Instigation of Buonaparte, for the Releasement of the Prince of the Peace.-Universal Joy that had been excited at the Imprisonment of this Favourite.--His excessive Elevation contrasted with his Fall.-Arrival of Charles IV. and his Queen at Bayonne.— Visited by Buonaparte .. 129

...

CHAP. VIII.

Message from Buonaparte to Ferdinand VII. requiring him and all his Family to renounce the Crown of Spain and the Indies.—Conference between Cevallos, the Minister of Ferdinand, and Champagny, Buonaparte's Minister for foreign Affairs.—Interrupted by Buonaparte. -Ferdinand made sensible that he was in a state of Arrest.-Charles announces to Ferdinand his Determination to renounce all his Rights and those of his Family to the Crown of Spain.-Conditional Renunciation of Ferdinand in favour of his Father.-Correspondence between Charles and Ferdinand on the Subject.-The Queen of Spain bastardizing

CHAP IX.

CHAP. X.

Temonstrated with administration against their past conduct, in allowing the revenue to be defrauded annually of a large sum of money; and threatened, that unless the law should be enforced, he would en. deavour to bring the subject before the public in England. A British ministry has always sufficient occasion for money. Sir Hugh Pailiser having thus pointed out a quar. ter where it might be obtained without the troublesome necessity of having recourse to a jealous house of commons, his remon. strances were favourably listened to, and the collectors of the revenue in Scotland were instructed to enforce the law relative to French wines. This was, for some time, accomplished with difficulty. The deep bays or friths, which run far into the country of Scotland, afforded great opportunities for smuggling, at a time when the British navy did not possess that ab. solute dominion over the ocean which it has since acquired. When seizures were made, the juries in exchequer, during a long period, would never confess themselves able to distinguish the taste of French from that of Portuguese wines. Their verdicts were therefore almost uniformly against the Nor was this spirit abso. lutely got quit of till the early part of Mr. Pitt's administration, when the duties upon wine were reduced under the management of the ex. cise."

crown.

Another anecdote.

"An illiberal doubt has been sometimes entertained, how far a nation derives advantage from the general diffusion of literature among the common people; but the cx

ample of Scotland has demonstrated, that the highest purity of morals uniformly accompanies the greatest degree of intelligence. There is no doubt that, to the establishment of parish schoolmasters it has been owing, that, at all periods, crimes have in Scotland been so extremely rare. In periods of political effer. vescence, which occur in a nation once perhaps in a couple of cen turies, the diffusion of literature rapidly spreads an acquaintance with whatever new notions are afloat in the world; but it also spreads, with equal rapidity, whate ever can be stated against their truth or practicability, and thereby prevents their being rashly, adopt. ed. In all the ordinary occupa tions of life, also, an early education confers habits of reflection. It shows that honesty is the best policy; and inspires a pride of spirit, which is the best guardian of most men's integrity. It is true, that literature does not always tame a disorderly spirit; but, to a very late period of life, it renders reformation possible, and its result valuable; and renders the first fol. lies, or even the vices, of youth not absolutely fatal. Hence it happeus, that he who in Scotland was a very foolish young man, afterwards, in another country, is only distinguished by his soberness and successful industry. The celebrated marshal Keith, who was under the necessity of passing his life in exile from Britain on account of the accession of his family to the rebellion of 1715, and who was so highly distinguished as a skilful and gallant officer in the service of Russia and Prussia, is said to have related related the following anecdote,

which,

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