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fore, sacrifice every thing to a cause so just, and if we are to lose our all, let us lose it fighting, and as generous men. Join me, therefore, all; the people are ready to take up arms; let us commit to the wisest among us in all the provinces of Spain, the important trust to preserve the public opinion, and refute those insolent libels replete with the most atrocious falsehoods. Let every one combat in his way; and let even the church of Spain in. cessantly implore the assistance of the God of Hosts, whose protec tion is secured to us by the evident justice of our cause. And what do you fear? There is not in Spain the number of the enemy's troops which they proclaim, in order to intimidate us. Those who occupy part of our country are composed of different nations, dragged into service, and who anxiously desire to break their chains. The positions they have taken are exactly those in which they can be conquered and defeated in the easiest manner They are besides weak and dismayed, because the consciousness of guilt makes a coward of the bravest man. All Europe will appland our efforts, and hasten to our assistance. Italy, Germany, and the whole north, which suffer under the despotism of the French nation, will eagerly avail themselves of the favourable opportunity held out to them by Spain, to shake off their yoke and recover their liberty, their laws, their monarchs, and all they have been robbed of by that nation. France herself will hasten to erase the stain of infamy which must cover the tools and instruments of deeds the most treacherous and heinous. She will not shed her blood in so vile a cause.

She has already suffered too much under the idle pretext of a peace and happiness, which never came, and can never be attained but under the empire of reason, peace, reli gion, and laws, and in a state where the rights of other nations are respected and observed. Spaniards, your native country, your property, your laws, your liberty, your' kings, your religion, nay, your hopes in a better world, which that religion can alone devise to you and your descendants, are at stake, exposed to great and imminent danger.-By command of the supreme council of goverment,

First secretary.
DON JUAN PARDO, Second sec.

Portuguese Revolution. Edict and Proclamation, issued at Oporto, 20th June, 1808.

N the name of the prince re


gent of Portugal, the junta of the supreme government of the city of Oporto makes known unto all the subjects of the said prince, that the French government is entirely exterminated from this country, and the royal authority of our legitimate sovereign is restored, which will be exercised fully and independently by the abovementioned junta, until the government established in this kingdom, by his royal highness shall be restored: in consequence of which the said junta order that his royal highness shall be proclaimed, and his royal arms be displayed and respected as they always have been and shall be: and that all constituted autho. rities shall act conformably, publishing all their orders in the name of his royal highness.-The bishop, X 3 president,

president, and generalissimo. Given at Oporto, 19th June, 1808.

Edict.---The provisional counc!! of the government of Oporto, in vites the veteran soldiers, to what ever regiment of the line they may belong, to unite with the army of this province, that is, to enter into the ranks with the two regiments of the garrison of this city, which are in the course of organization: and to each man, by way of remuneration, are promised a month's pay, and a daily allowance of four vinteins, with clothing, &c. The same pay will be allotted to all the soldiers now on service, as well as those who will join the same regiments, as far as circumstances will permit this extraordinary pay. Likewise the militia will have the same advantages.-The bishop, president, and governor.

Proclamation. Portuguese!... By heaven, and by Jesus Christ! You have a governor who loves you, who is anxious for your happiness, and who will exert himself to obtain it. What avail your turbulence, your excesses, your want of that order and subordination to which he would conduct you, anxious to preserve your lives? What oppor. tunities have you not lost, of which -you ought to have availed yourselves against the enemy, since you have neglected your own resources? What signals do you not exhibit to the enemy, that he may entrap and surprise you. Portuguese! Listen to one who loves you. The French intends to strike a blow, fatal to you, and you are lost if you are guilty of insubordination, or disre

knowledge of where you are, where your force, and where your weakness. From your enemy conceal your power, that you may strike the blow with the more success; and that you may encounter him when he least expects your ap proach. By these means you may conquer him. Subject yourselves to your superiors in all and through all, if you are desirous of victory; otherwise be assured you will meet only disgrace. From necessity, after this manner, the mighty bull yields to vigilance, dexterity, and the little cloak. By whatever is sacred in heaven, or in earth, by the sacred name of Jesus Christ, the governor implores you, that you maintain subjection to your chiefs, conforming to the regula tions of your respective companies. If you are ordered to a post, there you ought to remain until the mo. ment of combat and glory shall ar rive. To you who are in the van we first commit our cause, and by valour diminish the number of our enemies. You who are next in order, when your turn comes, fulfil your duty by dealing destruction around you and you who form the rear-guard, destroy the rest. Your energy must be guided by intelligence; you must be conducted by wisdom, in order to be conquerors. Long live the prince regent; long live Portugal; long lize the Portuguese!..The bishop, go. vernor, and president.

Sketch of Buonaparte's New Con stitution for Spain.


HE Catholic-Apostolic

gard the councils of your governor. Art. 1. T and Romish religion is

Your firing, your beat of drum,,

your bells, give to your enemies the the predominant and sole religion of

Spain and its dominions; none state, king of Spain and the Indies. other shall be tolerated.

Tile II.

2. Prince Joseph Napoleon, king of Naples and Sicily, is king of Spain and the Indies.-3. The crown of Spain and the Indies shall be hereditary in the male issue lawfully begotten of the body of the said prince, according to seniority of birth, to the perpetual exclusion of females.-In default of such issue male, lawfully begot ten of the prince Joseph Napoleon, the crown of Spain shall descend to as and our heirs male, and legal successors, either of our body, or by adoption.-In default of such our male descendants and lawful successors, to descend to the issue male and lawful successors of prince Louis Napoleon, king of Holland. And in default of such male descendants and lawful successors of prince Louis Napoleon, to the issue male, and lawful suc. cessors of prince Jerome Napoleon, king of Westphalia.—And in default of these, to the first born son, before the death of the last king, of the eldest daughter of those who have male issue, and to his male descendants and lawful successors; and in case the last king should not have nominated that one of his daughters who has male issue, then to him whom he shall appoint by his will, either among his relations, or among those whom he shall deem most worthy to rule over Spain. This nomination shall be delivered to the cortes for their acceptance.-4. The crown of Spain shall never be fixed upon the same head with any other crown.-5. In all the edicts and laws, the title of the king of Spain shall be D.N.by the grace of God, and the constitution of the

-6. The king on his accession to the throne, or on his attaining his majority, shall take an oath to the Spanish people on the gospel, in the presence of the cortes, the senate, the council of state, the council of Castile, the archbishops and bi shops.-7. The form of the king's oath is :-" I swear, on the holy evangelists, to reverence and cause to be reverenced our holy religion; to maintain the inviolability of the Spanish territory; to reverence and cause to be reverenced, the li. berty of the person, and to govern alone for the welfare, happiness, and glory of the Spanish nation.” Title III.-Of the Government.


8. The minority of the king shall last till he has attained his 13th year. During his minority there shall be a regent of the kingdom.-9. The regent must be at least 25 years old,-10. The regent shall be nominated by the preceding king, among the infantos who have attained the age mentioned in the preceding article.11. In default of nomination by the preceding king, the regency belongs to the prince the farthest removed from the throne, according to the law of succession, and who has attained the age of 25 years.— 12. In case the prince furthest removed from the crown shall be in a state of minority, the regency be longs to the next prince, who shall continue to exercise his functions till the king shall have attained his majority.-13. The regent is not personally answerable for the acts of his administration.-14. All the acts of the regency pass in the name of the minor king.-15. The yearly revenue of the regent shall bone-fourth of the income of the eX 4


crown.-16. In case the preceding king shall have nominated no regent, and all the princes shall be minors, then the government shall be carried on by the ministers who form the council of government.17. All state affairs shall be deter

mined by a majority of votes in the council of government.-18. The regency has no right to the personal custody of the king, during his minority.-19. The care of the king during his minority is vested in his mother, and in default of her, in the prince appointed there. to by the demised sovereign.-20. The board of guardianship, composed of the ministers, shall principally be charged with superin. tending the education of the young king; and the same shall be consulted in every matter of importance, relative to his person esblishment.

Title IV.-Property of the Crown. 21. The palaces of Madrid, the Escurial, St. Ildefonso, Aranjuez, D'El Pardo, and all the others now forming part of the property of the crown, together with the parks, woods, domains, and estates of what kind soever, constitute the property of the crown. The revenues accruing from the said property shall be paid into the treasury of the crown; and should they fall below the yearly sum of a million of hard piastres, an addition of hereditary property shall be made, so as to make good the revenue to the amount stated.-22. The pub. Jic treasury shall annually pay over to that of the crown, a sum of two millions in hard piastres.-23. The king's sons, on attaining the age of twelve years shall receive the fol. lowing annual revenues in the name of subsistence money, viz. :-the

heir apparent, 200,000 piastres ; each infanto, 100,000 piastres; and each infanta, 50,000 piastres.

24. The dowry of the queen is fixed at 400,000 piastres, and shall be paid out of the treasury of the


Title V-Of the Officers of the Royal Household.

25. The chief and grand officers of the royal household are six in number, a grand almoner, grand chamberlain, grand cup-bearer, grand master of the horse, grand huntsman, and grand master of the ceremonies.-26. The noblemen of the chamber, the steward's chaplains, and equeries, are officers of the royal household.

Title VI.

27. There shall be nine ministerial departments, viz. of police, religion, foreign affairs, internal af. fairs, domains, war, marine, the Indies, and general police.-28. A secretary of state, in the character of minister, shall sign all acts of government.-29. The king may commit several ministerial functions to one minister.-30. There is no other precedence among the ministers than what results from their priority of nomination in point of time.-31. The ministers, each in his own department, are responsi ble for the execution of the laws, and of his majesty's orders.

Title VII. Of the Senate.

32. The senate is composed, 1. of the infants of Spain, being 18 years of age. 2. Of twenty-four individuals, specially appointed by the king from among the ministers, captain-generals, ambassadors, councillors of state, and. members of the council of Castile.-93. The existing councillors of state are members of the senate. No new nomination


nomination shall take place until they are reduced below twentyfour, as regulated by the preceding article.-34. The president of the senate is appointed by the king. He is chosen out of the senate, and his functions last for one year. 35. The senate meets by the command of the king, or on the application of the junta, or one of its officers for internal affairs.-36. In the case of an armed insurrection, or of apprehensions respecting the safety of the state, the senate may, on the proposition of the king, sus pend the operation of the constitutional act in a particular district, and time to be limited..

[The remaining articles of this title, and those of the 8th title relative to the council of state, contain little that is of general interest. The king presides in the council, which is to consist of not less than 30, nor more than 60 members, . divided into six sections, viz. those of justice, religion, internal af. fairs, police, finance, war, the marine, and the indies.]

Title IX.

57. The cortes or juntas of the na. tion are composed of 150 members, divided into three estates or orders, namely those of the clergy, nobili ty, and people.-58. The order of the clergy shall consist of 25 archbishops or bishops.-59. The order of the nobility shall consist of 25 nobles, who shall have the title of grandees of the cortes.-30. The order of the people shall consist of 40 deputies from the provinces, 30 from the principal cities, 15 from the merchants, and 15 deputies from the universities, to consist of the most celebrated for their at. tainments in the arts and sciences, -61. The archbishops or bishops

constituting the order of the clergy, shall be raised to the rank of members of the cortes, by a writ sealed with the great seal of the state. They cannot be divested of their functions, but by virtue of the sen tence of a competent court, pronounced in due form.-C2. The nobles must possess an annual income of at least 200,000 hard piastres, and have performed great services in the civil or military departments, to qualify them for being elevated to the rank of gran. dees of the cortes. They shall be raised to the rank by a writ stamped with the great seal of the state. They cannot be divested of their functions but by the sentence of a competent court, pronounced in due form.-63. The deputies from the provinces shall be nominated by the same, in the proportion of at least 1 to 300,000 inhabitants; for this purpose the provinces shall be divided into so many elective districts as shall be necessary to furnish the population giving the right to the election, of a deputy.-[The articles from 64 to 70 inclusive, contain the forms to be observed in electing the deputies of the people, the commercial bodies, and the universities.]-71. The cortes shall assemble upon the summons of the king. They cannot be adjourned, prorogued, or dissolved, but by his orders. They shall meet once, at least, in three years.-72. The president of the cortes shall be ap.. pointed by the king, but shall be chosen out of three candidates to be nominated by the cortes by ballot, and an absolute majority of votes.-73 and 74. On the opening of such session, the cortes shall no. minate three candidates for the presid.niship, two vice-presidents, two


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