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against Swedish vessels; Prussian vessels shall no longer be sent into Sweden, neither shall Swedish or neutral ships, or wares which came from Sweden, be admitted into Prussian harbours,

Answer of Sweden to the Danish
Declaration of War. Dated
Stockholm, March 21, 1808.
THE court of Denmark had

made an alliance with France, was prepared to receive French troops in its country, collected transport vessels in its port, fitted out all its ships in the road of Copenhagen, to cover a French expedition against Sweden, and then issued a declaration of war. Den mark accused Sweden of being the cause of this rupture, because she did not make her compliments of condolence on the loss of her fleet, because she would not co-operate to avenge that humiliation, and especially because she sought aid from England against such an aggression. The relations of the king with his neighbouring power were those of a simple peace. There was neither alliance, nor any convention whatever which traced out for the two courts any common course for their political conduct; therefore, when Sweden, Russia, and Prussia fought in conjunction against France, Denmark, under the shade of her neutrality, appeared the friend of all. The king witnessing this system, and con. vinced by some explanations, demanded in the course of the year 1806, of the impossibility of ob, taining a change favourable to Sweden, could not entertain a hope that the naval force of Denmark

could ever be useful to him; on the contrary, after the peace of Tilsit, he had every reason to fear that, by the suggestions of Russia and France, it might be one day turned against him. His majesty, therefore, thought it proper to ob serve a profound silence relative to the events which passed in his vi cinity last autumn, leaving to England and futurity to justify them. It is due to truth, however, to de. clare, that the court of London did not invite Sweden to take part in this expedition, nor confided it to her till the moment of its being carried into execution. Therefore, not the least movement was made in Sweden on this occasion. The English fleet arrived and departed without entering into any port of Sweden; and the auxiliary troops, embarked in Pomerania, were restored in virtue of a separate article in the convention concluded at London, relative to this object, on the 17th of June, 1807, when certainly there was as yet no reference to this expedition. The following is the article - It is fully under: stood, that, in case that unforeseen circumstances should render im practicable the object of this convention, or that his Britannic majesty should find it necessary to withdraw the said troops (the Ger. man legion) from Swedish Pome. rania, the stipulation of this con. vention shall in no manner prevent his Britannic majesty from giving such orders as he may judge proper with respect to the ulterior dispo sition of these troops which are now placed under the orders of his Swedish majesty."-The court of London has since fully justified this enterprize, and the experience of every day justifies it. Nume,



tannic majesty the most authentic solemn testimony, that in all his transactions with Sweden he never demanded offensive measures; nor required, any thing that was not perfectly compatible with i quillity and independence. The most convincing proof of this is the promptitude with which his ministry acceded to the proposition of the king for the pacification of the Baltic, by a formal promise not to send thither any ships of war, but on conditions useful and honourable to all the north. Let the Danish government read in this proposition the complete refutation of the complaints of which the manifesto against Sweden is com posed; and in the moments when it shall return itself, let it compare the state of things which the king has desired with that which France and Russia wish, Let all the allies of France read in this consent of England the difference between the connections which unite the two courts and those which enchain them, and let them pronounce on which side is to be found due regard for particular interests, and a just moderation for the general good.-Denmark herself has been, during a long time, the object of this moderation, and did not cease to be so till she became absolutely dangerous. When the north was outraged by the devastation of Lower Saxony, the oppression of the Hanseatic towns, what did she to avenge them? Sweden, England, and Russia, made war for this object; but no one thought of forcing Denmark to take part in it. She was the ally of Russia, then. as well as at present; wh, did she not embrace her cause? What could she then alledge for her tranquillity

rous French armies remained in Lower Saxony and over-awed the north. There were still nations to subjugate, ports to shut, and forces to direct against England. They were to penetrate at any rate: they would have acted in any case and under any pretence that might have offered. At present, it is the expedition against the Danish fleet which is the rallying word of the whole league. What is remarkable is, that the Danish government, al, ready beset by French troops, overpowered, impelled, and even paid by France, issues a declara. tion of war against Sweden, with. out daring even to name the power which forces it to act. It seeks with embarrassment grievances, and reasons to appear to have had in this determination a will of its own. It cites the remonstrances of Sweden against the arrest of the Swedish mails as vexations, while in its severity against English correspondence, it would not suffer it to pass according to treaty, and declares that it is imperiously obliged to take these measures. It pretends to know the thoughts of the king, and imagines them hostile, though for some months it had concerted an aggression upon Sweden. It pretends to reason on the interests of the country, though it has abandoned its own interests, and even its existence, to a foreign influence. In fine, it reproaches Sweden with having provided for her defence by a subsidiary treaty, though itself is paid for an aggres. sion; and then it pronounces, though indeed with a kind of ti. midity, the word mercenary, which the government that pays it had probably dictated to it.It is pro posed here to render to his Bri

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that Sweden cannot now alledge? All this is explained by the single fact which she endeavours, to con. ceal that she is at present under the influence of the French go. vernment. Had England followed the principles of this enemy, she would not have waited the moment of her surrender to disarm her, she would have invaded her several years before; she would have guarded her, and all this with a view to the good of the north. Her ancient alliance with Rus-ia is made a pretext for this aggression, though all the world knows that it is merely defensive, and that it remained suspended during the late wars with Russia, when perhaps that power might have claimed it. The court of Denmark, in order to justify its proceedings, hesitates not to make all kinds of assertions, dares to defend the injustice of Russia, and betrays a premeditated plot; and all this it does to conccal the chief, nay, only reason, which is that Denmark is the ally of France. But injustice and falsehood find their end; honour and trath will triumph in their turn. His majesty, relying on the justice. of his cause, hopes, with conscious pride of reigning over a brave and loyal people, so often tried by dangers, and held up by the Almighty, that the same Providence will vouchsafe to bless his army, and restore to his subjects a safe and honourable peace, to the confusion of his enemies.

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Proclamation of General Armfeldt,

on entering Norway. INHABITANTS of NorwayThe Danish government has declared war against Sweden,

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without any cause or provocation on her part; it has crowned the calamities that afflicted the north, and spontaneously submitted to a foreign yoke. The Swedish troops, therefore, enter your country according to the laws of war, in order to prevent hostilities from being committed in their own country. But the laws of war are carried into execution only by sol diers; the peaceful inhabitants of the towns and country, if they excite no disturbances, shall enjoy tranquillity and protection.-The Swedish soldiers, celebrated for or. der and discipline, respect the per sonal safety and property of the unarmed; and should Providence bless his majesty's arms, the army under my command, so far from proving hurtful to your different trades, shall open your ports to commerce and importation, quick-' en our industry, and secure in the north an asylum for loyalty and honour.


The King of Sweden's Prociamation on the Rupture of the Intercourse with Prussia. Dated Stockholm Castle, April 5th, 1808.

WF, Gustavus Adolphus, by

the grace of God, king of Sweden, of the Goths and Vandals, &c. unto all our true and loyal subjects, greeting-We herewith graciously make known to you, that his majesty, the king of Prussia, has declared to us that all kind of intercourse between his domi

nions and Sweden is suspended; and that in consequence thereof, all trade and navigation to Swedish


ports is prohibited under severe penalties; and that further, all Prussian harbours are shut up against all Swedish ships.-This proceeding has not by any means been occasioned on our part; the said government, reduced by French tyranny, affords a fresh proof of the oppression to which all states must submit, that entertain any con. nexion with the French government. An unfortunate lassitude, which prevented Prussia from resisting in due time, has brought her to the distressed situation in which she is now placed-groaning under the domination of France, which still occupies a considerable part of the remains of that monarchy with a numerous army, notwithstanding the conclusion of peace. We commend you all and severally to the merciful protection of Almighty God.


Decrees for raising Conscripts, and for uniting certain Countries with France.-23d Jan. 1808. THE conservatory senate assem

bled to the number of members presented by act 90, of the act of the constitution of the 22d of Frimaire, year 8, having considered the project of the senatus consul. tum, drawn in the form prescribed by article 57 of the constitutional act of the 16th Thermidor, year 16. After having heard on the motives of the said project, the orators of the council of state, and the report of the special commission nominated in the sitting of the 16th of this month; the adoption having been discussed with the number of voices prescribed by ar. ticle 56 of the organic senatus


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consultum of the 18th of Thermidor, year 10, decrees as follows: -Art. 1. Eighty thousand con. scripts of the conscription of the year 1809, are placed at the dis. posal of government. 2. They shall be taken from among the youths born between the 1st of Jan. 1789, and Jan. 1, 1790. 3. They shall be employed, should there be occasion to complete the legions of reserve of the interior, and the regiment having their de pots in France. The present se. natus consultum shall be transmitted to his imperial and royal majesty,

We require and command, that these presents, sanctioned by the seals of state, and inserted in the Bulletin des Loix, shall be ad. dressed to the courts and tribunals, and administrative authorities, that they may be inserted in their respective registers, and observed, and caused to be observed ; · and our grand judge, the minister of justice, is charged to superintend the publication. NAPOLEON.

By another decree of the conservatory senate, in the same form, and in a like manner signed by Buonaparte, the towns of Kehl, Wesel, Cassel, and Flushing. are to be united to the French empire. Kehl to the department of the Lower Rhine; Cassel to the de partment of Mount Tonnere; We sel in the department of the Roer; and Flushing in the department of the Scheldt.

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France, unfolding themselves more and more in such a manner as to threaten Sweden with a speedy in vasions 1 for the purpose of forcing ber to accede to the French system; and his , Swedish majesty finding himself therefore under the neces sity of bringing forward, to resist its effects, ia greater force than he has at his ordinary disposal ;-his Britannic majesty, animated with the constant desire of contributing to the defence and security of his ally, and of supporting him by every means in a war undertaken for the mutual interests of both states, has determined to give to his Swedish majesty an immediate aid in money, as being the most prompt and efficacious, to be paid from time to time at fixed periods: and their majesties have judged it expedient that a formal conven. tion, with regard to their recipro cal intentions in this respect, should be concluded, they have for this purpose named and authorised their respective plenipotentiaries, who bave agreed upon the following ar. ticles :


I. His majesty the king of the united kingdom of Great Britain gnd, Ireland, engages that there shall be paid to his majesty the king of Sweden the suni of 1,200,0301. Sterling, in - equal instalments of 100,000l. sterling each per month, beginning with the month of Ja. nuary of the present year inclusive. ly, and to continue successively in the course of each month, the first of which instalments shall be paid on the ratification of the present convention by his Swedish majesty.

II. His majesty the king of Swe. den engages, on his part, to employ the said sum in putting into motion and keeping on a respectable esta

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blishment, all his land forces, and such part as shall be necessary for his fleets, and particularly his flo tilla, in order to oppose the most effectual resistance to the common enemies.

III. Their said majesties more. over engage to conclude no peace, no truce, or convention of neutral ity with the enemy, but in concert and by mutual agreement,

IV. The present convention shall be ratified by the two high con. tracting parties, and its ratifications shall be exchanged at London within the space of six weeks, after the signature of the said convention, or sooner if it can be done.

Separate Article.

The two high contracting parties have agreed to, concert, as soon as possible, the measures to be taken, and the auxiliary succours to be stipulated for, in the case of a war actually taking place between Sweden and the powers her neighbours; and the stipulations which may result shall be considered as scparate and additional articles to this convention, and shall have the same force as if they were word for word inserted therein.


In faith of which, we the under. signed plenipotentiaries of their said majesties, have signed the present convention, and this separate arti cle, and have caused the scal of our arms to be affixed thereto.

Done at Stockholm, the 8th of February, in the year of redemp tion 1808.


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