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guilty of high treason.-Art. 4. Our ministers are charged, each in his respective department, with the execution of the present decree.

Russian Declaration against Swe

den, Feb. 10, 1808. JUSTLY indignaut at the violence which England has displayed towards the king of Denmark, the emperor of Russia, faithful to his character and to his system of unceasing care for the interests of his empire, notified to the king of Great Britain, that he could not remain insensible of so unjust and unexampled an aggression on a sovereign connected with him by the ties of blood and friend. ship, and who was the most ancient ally of Russia.-His imperial majesty informed the king of Sweden of this determination by a note, dated the 21th of September last, presented to the Swedish am. bassador.-An article of the treaty concluded in 1783, between the empress Catharine and Gustavus III. and another in the treaty of 1800, between the late emperor Paul and the present king of Swe. den, contain the reciprocal and stipulated agreement to maintain the principle, that the Baltic is a close sea, with the guarantee of its coasts against all acts of hostility, violence, or vexations whatever; and further, to employ for this purpose all the means in the power of the respective contracting parties. His imperial majesty, referring to these treaties, considered himself not merely authorised, but bound, to call upon the king of Sweden for his co-operation against England. His Swedish majesty did


not disavow the obligation imposed upon him by the treaties referred to, but refused all co-operation until the French troops should be removed from the coasts, and the ports of Germany opened to Eng. lish ships. But the question here was the checking of those aggressions which England had menced, and by which all Europe was disturbed. The emperor de. manded from the king of Sweden a co-operation founded on treaties; but his Swedish majesty answered by proposing to delay the execution of the treaty to another period, and by troubling himself with the care of opening the Dutch ports, for England. In a word, with rendering himself of service to that England, against which measures of defence ought to have been taken. It would be difficult to find a more striking proof of partiality on the part of the king of Sweden towards Great Britain, than this which he has here given

His imperial majesty, on the 16th of November, caused a second note to be delivered, in which his Swedish majesty was informed of the rupture between Russia and England. This note remained two months unanswered, and the an swer which was transmitted on the 9th of January to his majesty's ministers, was to the same purport as the former.-The emperor is, however, far from regretting his moderation. He is, on the contrary, well pleased to recollect that he has employed every means that remained to him for bringing back his Swedish majesty to the only sys tem of policy which is consistent with the interests of his states; but his imperial majesty owes it at least


to his people, and to the security of his dominions, which is to a sovereign the highest of all laws, no longer to leave the co-operation of; Russia with Sweden a matter of doubt.-Informed that the cabinet of St. James's, endeavouring to terrify Denmark into a concurrence with the interests of England, threatened that Swedish troops should occupy Zealand, and that the possession of Norway should be guaranteed to the king of Sweden; assured also that his Swedish majesty, while he left the Russian note unanswered, was secretly negociating a treaty at London, his imperial majesty perceived that the interests of his empire would be very ill secured, were he to permit his neighbour, the king of Sweden, at the commencement of a war between Russia and England, to dis guise his well-known sentiments of attachment to the latter power, under the appearance of a pretended neutrality. His imperial majesty, therefore, cannot allow the relations of Sweden towards Russia to remain longer in a state of uncertainty. He cannot give his consent to such a neutrality.-His Swedish majesty's being therefore no longer doubtful, nothing remained for his imperial majesty but to resort to those means which Pro. vidence has placed in his hands, for no other purpose except that of giving protection and safety to his dominions; and he has deemed it right to notify this intention to the king of Sweden and to all Europe. -Having thus acquitted himself of that duty, which the safety of his dominions require, his imperial ma. jesty is ready to change the measures he is about to take, to measures of precaution only, if the

king of Sweden will, without delay, join Russia and Denmark in shutting the Baltic against England until the conclusion of a maritime peace. He himself invites the king, his brother-in-law, for the last time, and with all the feelings of real friendship, no longer to he sitate in fulfilling his obligations, and in embracing the only system of policy which is consistent with the interests of the northern powers. What has Sweden gained since her king attached himself to England? -Nothing could be more painful to his imperial majesty than to see a rupture take place between Sweden and Russia. But his Swedish majesty has it still in his power to prevent this event by, without delay, resolving to adopt that course which can alone preserve a strict union and perfect harmony between the two states.

Russian Proclamation to the Inhabitants of Finland, Feb. 18, 1808.


IT is with the utmost concern his

imperial majesty, my most gracious master, finds himself necessitated to order his troops under my command to enter your country, good friends and inhabitants of Swedish Finland. His imperial majesty feels the more concerned to take this step, to which he is compelled by the transactions which have taken place in Sweden, as he still bears in mind the generous and friendly sentiments which the Fins displayed towards Russia in the last war, when the Swedish king engaged in an invasion of Finland, in a manner equally unexpected and unwarrantable.-His present Swedish majesty, far from joining his


imperial majesty in his exertions to restore the tranquillity of Europe, which alone can be effected by the coalition which so fortu. nately has been formed by the most powerful states, has on the contrary formed a closer aliance with the enemy of tranquillity and peace, whose oppressive system and unwarrantable conduct towards his imperial majesty and his nearest ally, his imperial majesty cannot by any means look upon with indifference. It is on this ground, in addition to what his majesty owes to the security of his own domi. nions, that he finds himself necessitated to take your country under his protection, in order to reserve to himself due satisfaction, in case his royal Swedish majesty should persist in his design not to accept the just conditions of peace which have been tendered to him by his French majesty, through the medi. ation of his imperial Russian majesty, in order to restore the bless. ings of peace, which are at all times the principal object of his imperial majesty's attention.--Good friends and men of Finland, remain quiet and fear nought, we do not come to you as enemies, but as your friends and protectors, to render you more prosperous and happy, and to avert from you the calamities which, if war should be come indispensable, must necessarily befall you.-Do not allow yourself to be seduced to take to arms, or to treat in a hostile man. ner the troops who are committed to my orders; should any one of fend against this admonition, he must impute to himself the consequences of his conduct, while, on the other hand, those who meet his imperial majesty's paternal care for

the welfare of this country, may rest assured of his powerful favour and protection. And as it is his imperial majesty's will, that all the affairs in your country shall pursue their usual course, and be managed according to your ancient laws and customs, which are to remain undisturbed as long as his troops ré main in your country, all officers both civil and military, are here. with directed to conform themselves thereto, provided that no bad use be made of this indulgence, contrary to the good of the country.Prompt payment shall be made for all provisions and refreshments required for the troops, and in order that you may still more be convinced of his majesty's paternal solicitude for your welfare, he has ordered several magazines to be formed, in addition to those which are already established, out of which the most indigent inhabitants shall be supplied with necessaries in common with his majesty's troops.

Should circumstances arise to re. quire an amicable discussion and deliberation, in that case you are directed to send your deputies, chosen in the usual manner, to the city of Abo, in order to deliberate upon the subject, and adopt such measures as the welfare of the country shall require.-It is his imperial majesty's pleasure, that from this moment Finland shall be considered and treated in the same manner as other conquered provinces of the Russian empire, which now enjoy happiness and peace under the mild government of his imperial majesty, and remain in full possession of the freedom of religion and worship, as well as of all its ancient rights and privileges.-The taxes payable to the crown remain in substance un


altered, and the pay of the public officers of every description continues likewise on its ancient footing.

Swedish Declaration against Rus

sia, March 11, 1808.

THE first intimation his majesty

received of the hostile entrance of Russian troops into Finland on the 21st of February last, and of their public incitements to rebellion and revolt circulated in` that province immediately afterwards, on be half of his imperial Russian majesty, was by a telegraphic dispatch.-A breach of peace without a previous, declaration of war, without a single article of complaint being preferred; a breach of peace emanating from treachery, and carried on by a traitor of his native country, placed at the side of the commander in chief, is an event which has but few examples, and must at the first glance create detestation; but when this act is examined at the same time with what has lately occurred between the two countries; when contemplated in its forbidding devi, ation from those paths of truth and honour exemplified by his ally, no feeling can then express, no name can compass the extent of such depravity; its features will remain without a parallel in history, filling up the deeds of iniquity heaped to.

• George Springporten.

gether in the present age.-At a time when his imperial Russian majesty seemed to feel tenderly for oppressed princes and countries; at a time when he estimated the

dangers which threatened all Eu. rope, his majesty, actuated by similar sentiments, was led into en

gagements with him, founded on

the confidence he placed in him as a neighbour, an ally, and as an independent monarch. The emperor of Russia, in reference to the ge neral welfare, had entered into useful engagements, had yet to demand of France the fulfilment of existing treaties, was possessed of power to support his own rights and those of all others concerned; his majesty entered into an alliance with him, and is now attacked by him on the direct ground of having been his ally. Never did a prince enter into an alliance with a more assured consciousness of the purity of its motives, as well as of its being inviolably kept. The emperor had been personally insulted by the refusal of the French government to fulfil a concluded and sealed treaty; had been publicly defamed by repeated insults levelled at his own person. The Russian nation had been no less insulted, being gazetted as savages and barbari. ans;t. Thus every thing that is sacred to a government, was connect. ed with the common interest. Was

A people (the Russians) who from their barbarous customs and manners ought to create abhorrence amongst all civilized nations.-Ordre du Jour. Vienme, le 25 Brumaire, An. 14 (14th November, 1805.)-These savage bands, whose assistance shall for the last time, be called forth by European governments -25 bulletin de la grand armeé, le 25 Brumaire, An. 14. If the Greek religion be allowed once to spread itself between the Baltic and the Mediterranean seas, we shall soon see our provinces attacked by a heap of mad barbarians-procla mation, the head-quarters, Warsaw, 25th Jan, 1807. Signed Napoleon Buonapatte.

it then possible but to look upon as irrevocable, what the emperor himself had declared, "that he would reject all conditions of peace, whether more or less advantageous, if they were not consistent with the glory of the Russian name; the security of the empire; the sanctity of alliances; and the tranquillity and peace of all Europe."*-In what manner, and how far these great objects have been obtained by the peace of Tilsit, contemporaries have already decided, and futurity will more clearly discover. The king, although at his post on the theatre of war, was, contrary to the express tenor of his convention with Russiat, neither informed of the armistice, nor of the definitive negociations, till the peace was concluded, having received advice of these transactions, accompanied with a cold and slight invitation to assist in the object of peace, the king renewed his application for an armis. tice (which ought, no doubt, to have been stipulated in the peace of Tilsit), but received only evasive answers, and discovered at once the value of Russian co-operation. The king finding himself in conse. quence unable to defend his German states any longer, was obliged to leave them to their subsequent

fate. Having sustained this loss, originating in the desertion of Russia, his majesty was again placed out of the theatre of war, and endeavoured to enjoy within his own territory that peace and qui etness which its geographical situation seemed to ensure to him. Having faithfully acted up to his engagements towards Russia, his majesty promised himself that notwithstanding the different system she had adopted, a just and equitable retrospect would be given to former occurrences. The king had supported the operations of Russia with his ships of war; had shared with the emperor his military stores; had rejected and immediately com. municated the offers made him by the French government. Among others, one that on condition of breaking with Russia while in the midst of the war, and when the Russian frontiers and her very capital were defenceless, Sweden should be put in possession of all the provinces lost during the reign of Charles XII, together with such further part of the Russian empire as his majesty might determine. His majesty stands on higher ground than to make a merit of having resisted temptations so mean and contemptible; but he is not without

* See the Russian manifesto of the 30th August, 1806.

+ Both the high contracting parties had engaged in the most powerful manner, that the hostilities being once commenced, they should not lay down their arms, or treat about any reconciliation with the French government without their mu tual consent. The convention between Sweden and Russia, dated the 14th January, 1805.-Art. IX. ·

General Budberg's letter to baron de Wetterstedt, first secretary for the foreign correspondence, dated the 10th July, 1807.

Promise of Norway given by general Bernadotte to a Swedish officer-a prisoner, Nov. 1806, respecting the extending of dominions of the French minister Bourienne, to Netzel the chargé des affaires, the 14th November, 1806. General Grandjean's representation to colonel baron Tavast, the 27th May, 1807, that Sweden was to demand what territory she wished to have in order that she might counterbalance Russia, &c. &c.


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