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terrupted friendship she has pre served during an entire century. War against the one was hostility against the other-peace with the one was tranquillity with the other -their alliances and their connec tions were ever the same but France, by her preponderance in Europe, by the superior influence of her sovereigns, was considered the principal branch of the family of the Bourbons, and as such regulated the enterprizes and directed the operations of both. Consequently, all the benefit of this union was her own, and Spain derived no other utility and no other glory from it, than as being the first and most powerful instru. ment of the aggrandizement of her ally.

"This union subsisted until the revolution of France, when the expulsion of the family from the throne of their ancestors, abroga ted for ever the compact. Other views, other relations, different ex. ternal policy was necessary under these new circumstances to the Spanish monarchy, and Charles IV. appeared willing to adopt them, when, in 1793 he declared war against France, and joined his forces with those of the coalition of Europe. But the favourite (Manuel de Godoy, Prince of the Peace,) who possessed uncontrouled influence in our councils, wretchedly conducted our operations in the hour of conflict, and our arrangements in the interval of tranquillity. To an unsuccessful war succeeded a disgraceful peace, and to this disgraceful peace an unequal and ruinous alliance, and from that time to the present, Spain has been tied to the wheels of French

destiny, and has been lacerated in its rapid and devious course.

"And what are the advantages that Spain has derived from this un natural alliance? Two maritime wars equally fatal-our squadrons sacrificed to the cautious policy of our present allies-valuable colonies lost-an interruption given to our connection with America, the principal nerve of our national industry, Louisiana, exchanged with the French for Etruria, and imme diately sold, contrary to the express terms of the alienation. Etruria, the price of this concession, and of immense sums besides, in the sequel violently forced from the prince who possessed it; a copious stream of silver and gold which flowed from Spain to France to appease the avarice of her go. vernors-in fine, the wild administration of the favourite, protected and supported by her, is another of the bitter fruits of this misap. plied friendship.

"The devouring flame, that in its progress had swallowed up Italy and Holland, that had subverted the political system of Germany, and exterminated Prussia, was arrested in its progress by the peace of Tilsit, but returned with violence to spend its fury in the West.

The unjust possession of Portugal and reported expeditions to Africa, were the pretexts for the introduction of French troops into Spain, and the offer of a sovereign. ty in that kingdom to the favou rite, was the temptation of the fa vourite to accede to these designs. To these arrangements was added, the scandalous transaction of the


Escurial; the unhappy divisions by their opponents, who manifested

among the royal family, produced by French intrigue and perfidy; Spain and Europe heard with astonishment the charge of parricide adduced by Charles the IVth against his successor, and they listened with horror while a father commanded the sword of justice to fall upon his first-born. But Spain and Europe repelled the nefarious calumny, and not a stain remained on the character of an innocent and virtuous prince-persecuted, deprived of the affection and confi. dence of his parents, his respect and obedience to them never forsook him, and his only crime was, being feared and therefore detested by the favourite. The wretch did not venture to consummate his purpose, and alarmed at the vengeance prepared for him by Spanish loy. alty, he abandoned his infamous design, and, by this unsuccessful effort advanced one step nearer to the precipice from which he fell.

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"The French took advantage of this violent agitation, and their atrocious contrivances prepared the road for the memorable transactions of the 2d of May.-They now had recourse to the means of inspiring terror, and they thought, that by vanquishing the capital, they should conquer the whole na tion. An opportunity soon offer. ed, which might have been evaded by pacific expedients. Impatient of blood, inflated by tyranny, they mowed down an innocent people, and slaughter spread its wide havoc through the quiet streets of Madrid; the inhabitants rushed to arms, and hand to hand, and foot to foot, the battalions of the French were taught how to despise death

more courage than their vile assas sins, protected by the closeness of a phalanx, and all the resources of military discipline. Human blood poured its warm current through the avenues, and although unequal in number, abandoned by their government, and deserted by their officers, who shamelessly confined themselves in their quarters, the conflict was sustained with obstinacy, and in many places with ad. vantage, when the accents of peace were heard with reverence from the lips of their magistrates, and they obeyed the mandate.

"The combat ceased, and horror commenced its labours. Barbarous Frenchmen established their posts throughout the capital, and the people found with arms on their persons, or even with domestic utensils pretended to be such, were seized, and without preparation or trial, during the same night, and the following morning, were butchered within sight of their own doors. During that terrible interval, the silence was only interrupted by the acts of the executioner, and the groans of the dying, and brave Spaniards disarmed, were prevented from inflicting a just vengeance for the murder of their brethren.

"That melancholy day transferred into the hands of Frenchmen the highest authority of the state, and the resignations from Bayonne, which immediately ap peared, acquainted the people that their future fate was to depend upon the will of Napoleon. The emperor then céded to his brother Jo. seph the Spanish crown, and in order to sanction these acts, in the genuine style of French buffoonery, a junta of Spaniards was convoked


at Bayonne; some of the members were sold, others were imbeciles, but most of them were mere cyphers, and these puppets of the grand master of the show, without credentials, without any appeal to the public to obtain authority, signified their approbation of, and sub. scribed their names 10, the miserable farrago which Napoleon and his secretaries distinguished by the pompous title of the Spanish constitu.


Proclamation of Alicant.

FAITHFUL and honourable people, lovers of your holy religion, and of your illustrious king Ferdinand the VIIth. Beloved people, the Antichrist of mankind, the horrid Napoleon Bonaparte, great in rapine, in artifice, in ambition, in robbery, and in perfidy, has lately robbed us of the most precious treasure of our hearts, and of the most beloved pledge of our hopes, Ferdinand the VIIth. Sophistry and villainy, all the infamous proceedings of which the most aban. doned robber is capable, compose the Napoleon code, which has authorized this horrible sacrilege. Is there any one among you, my be loved Alicantese, who can look with an indifferent and dry eye on this enormous crime? Can any one be so selfish, so indolent, as to bandon his country, and withdraw his band from public vengeance? No, it is not possible, it can never enter the heart of an honest man, Such conduct can only find a skuiking place in the hearts of those who were born to become the opprobrium of the human race, In a heart that is vile, ambitious, and avaricious, such sentiments can YOL, L.

only be cherished, and not in the hearts of my beloved citizens. Re nounce for a few days your custo. mary avocations; enlist yourselves, noble Alicantese, take up arms, from the lisping infant to the tre mulous aged; break off all correspondence with the French go. vernment; look upon it like a venomous animal: extirpate this ruthless and revolutionary race from the face of the earth. Let distant nations be filled with ad miration and terror, by your. va. lour, your fidelity, and your love for Ferdinand. Never allow your birth to be stained by an ignomi. nious cowardice. The noble and amiable matrons, the delicate mai. dens, even the austere religious recluse nuns, must take a part in this holy cause; or let them send up their prayers to Hearen for the success of our undertaking, and succour in their domestic economy the necessities of their warlike sons. Husbands, brothers, relatives, friends, and countrymen, valiant Alicantese, never fear. Fly, hasten, defend your country; obey punc tually the orders of the magistracy, sure of the victory which must crown your laudable efforts.

Let Spain be the grave of Na, poleon; let his mad ambition find here an ignominious close. Let the burial-place of the mules aud asses at Madrid receive in its bo som the putrefied boues of the worthless Murat.

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in several ways. You were first oppressed by a tyrant, avaricious of money, who robbed my cousin Charles of his treasures, and you of your blood. He fell, and you acted very wrong not to treat him with Zarra Zarra, which is as much as to say, not to cut off his head. Why did you not do so? Because you were asleep. Since that time you have met with another tyrant, ambitious of kingdoms, and he deprived my cousin Charles of his throne, including in the privation all his race, in order to keep the possession to himself, and to come before much lapse of time to deprive me also of my throne. Arouse, Christians! Ah, French dog, why did you give opium to the Christians, to get possession of the principal persons, and to effect your entry without exciting appre hension? Why did you not enter sword in hand, that your objects may be seen, and the Christians may treat you with Zarra Zarra? Christians, you have lost time! desert this tyrant, as you regard yourselves. Let Seville be loyal, brave, and firm in doing justice! Christians! attack these dogs, and defend the kingdom for the son of my cousin; and let that currish nation be abhorred for ever. Cou. rage, brave Christians! attack them, and let Ala the great assist you. I entreat you to defend your king. dom for my cousin, and for the Englishmen likewise. Let all na, tions see this, in order that they may know who the French dog is, and that they may rise against him. Sleep no more, Christians! Noble Junta of Seville, do strict and severe justice on every traitor towards the son of my cousin, and

may Ala reward you.-ALI MAHO MET.-Tetuan, June 10, 1808.



Downing-street, September 2. ISPATCHES, of which the fol lowing are copics and extracts, were last night received from lieutenant-general sir Harry Burrard, and lieutenant-general sir Arthur Wellesley, dated from head-quar. ters at Lourinha, addressed to vis count Castlereagh, one of his ma. jesty's principal secretaries of state, and brought by captain Campbell, aid-de-camp to sir Arthur Wel lesley.

Extract of a Letter from Lieute nant-general Sir Arthur Welles. ley, dated Head-quarters at Caldas, August 16,

I marched from Lyria on the 13th, and arrived at Ahobaca on the 19th, which place the enemy had abandoned in the preceding night, and I arrived here yesterday. The enemy, about four thousand in number, were posted about ten miles from hence, at Borica, and they occupied Brilos, about three miles from hence, with their ad. vanced posts. As the possession of this last village was important to our future operations, I deter mined to occupy it; and as soon as the British infantry arrived upon the ground, I directed that it might be occupied by a detachment, con sisting of four companies of rifle. men of the 60th and 95th regiments. The enemy, consisting of a small piquet of infantry and a few cavalry, made a trifling resist. ance, and retired; but they were


followed by a detachment of our riflemen to the distance of three miles from Brilos. The riflemen were then attacked by a superior body of the enemy, who attempted to cut them off from the main body of the detachment to which they belonged, which had now advanced to their support; larger bodies of the enemy appeared on both the flanks of the detachment, and it was with difficulty that major-general Spencer, who had gone out to Ebidos when he had heard that the riflemen had advanced in pur. suit of the enemy, was enabled to effect their retreat to that village. They have since remained in pos. session of it, and the enemy have retired entirely from the neighbourhood.

In this little affair of the advanced posts, which was occasioned solely by the eagerness of the troops in pursuit of the enemy, I am con. cerned to add, that lieut. Bunbury, of the 2d battalion of the 95th, was killed, and the hon. capt. Pakenham wounded, but slightly; and we have lost some men, of whose number I have not received the returns.

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In the centre of the valley, and about eight miles from Roleia, is the town and old Moorish fort of Ebidos, from whence the enemy's piquets had been driven on the 15th; and from that time he had posts in the hills on both sides of the valley, as well as in the plain in front of his army, which was posted on the heights in the front of Roleia, its right resting upon the hills, its left upon an eminence, ' on which was a windmill, and the whole covering four or five passes into the mountains in his rear.

I have reason to believe that his force consisted of at least 6000 men, of which about 500 were cavalry, with five pieces of cannon; and there was some reason to believe that general Loison, who was at Rio Major yesterday, would join general Laborde by his right in the course of the night. The plan of attack was formed accord. ingly, and the army having broken up from Caldas this morning, was formed into three columns; the right consisting of 120 Portuguese infantry and 50 Portuguese cavalry, destined to turn the enemy's left, and penetrate into the mountains in his rear; the left consisting of major-gen. Ferguson's and brigadier-gen. Bowe's brigades of ini. fantry, three companies of riflemen, a brigade of light artillery and 20 British and 20 Portuguese cavalry, was destined, under the command of major-gen. Ferguson, to ascend the hills at Ebidos, to turn all the enemy's posts on the left of the valley, as well as the right of the post at Role; this corps was also destined to watch the motions of gen. Loison, on the enemy's right, who I had heard had moved from Rio Major towards Alcoentre last

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