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acquainted with the theory and the immense resources of true liberty, supported by honour and religion.

the Battle of Saragossa, June the 17th, 1808.

CONQUERORS of the haughty French!-Aragonese !-You have proved yourselves to be worthy of your name. That multitude of

Come amongst us, and see what passing amidst the mountains of the small province of Asturias, proud warriors, triumphant in Generous Friends! We Asturians, accustomed to contemplate our mother-so we call our country, bounded on the north by the vast ocean, and on the south by the protecting barrier of high mountains, are led to conceive that nature herself, in the caves and fissures of our rocks, has provided an asylum for free dom against the attempts of ambition and of criminal passions. The ideas inspired by the constant view of these magnificent objects from infancy, may well make a profound impression on the Asturians, and strengthen that universal instinct which in every thing thing that.lives pants for liberty.-Come among us, illustrious Poles, Italians, and Portugueze, who fight now on the side of our oppressors. What? descendants of Cato, Brutus, Sobieski, and Vasco de Gama! shall you, in the sight of the universe, support the cause of those who have torn you from your mothers, your wives, and your children, and have led you like cattle to the ar mies of a Murat and a Grouchy, to destroy, in spite of yourselves, an innocent nation that loves you, and invites you to unite with them in defending the imprescriptible rights of reason, humanity and justice, and that burns with a desire to co-operate with you in revenging your own slavery?


every other part of Europe, ceased to retain the character of conquerors, when they came before you. You are inferior both in discipline and numbers; because one-twentieth part of our forces have not entered into action, having been incapable of uniting. Bu your zeal has overcome every difficulty. The musketry in which your enemies place so much confidence, are weak instruments of their power when you appear before them: you look at them with courage, and they fall at your feet.-Aragonese! the result of our first attempt has been to leave on the field of battle 18,000 enemies, composing a complete army, which had the audacity to provoke our resentment. have had the good fortune to get possession of all the property and baggage, of which the people have been infamously plundered, in the countries through which this army passed. Our loss consists only from 1700 to 2000 killed, and an equal number wounded: a loss bearing no comparison to the triumph we have obtained. Their precious blood is shed in the field of glory, on their own territory; and these blessed martyrs demand new victims: let us prepare for the sacrifice.-Aragonese! be not impatient. The enemy against whom we fight is rash, and will afford frequent opportunities for you to exercise your skill and your courage. If, especially, the lawless bands which

General Palafox's Proclamation after violate our city of Madrid, and

their commander Murat, should venture to approach us, we should receive the intelligence with the highest satisfaction; we would an. ticipate their expectations, and meet them half way.-Aragonese! if the battle of Saragossa had been gained by these intruders, we should have heard their babbling of the victories of Marengo, Austerlitz, and Jena, acquired by the same valour. Although the conquest we have effected has been sangui. nary, yet it has been glorious. Do you consider it as a trifling com. mencement of your future tri. umphs, under the powerful assist. ance of your illustrious leader and patron?

struction. Oh atrocious violation of the rights of society! Gene. rous Charles! Thou who didst dedicate thy best days, those days which thou owedst to the well-being of thy people, in pursuing the wild beasts of thy forests, tell us, if amongst this savage race thou hast found any so ferocious as the hor rid monster to whom thou hast thoughtlessly sacrificed an innocent family, and a faithful nation wórthy the best affections of their sovereign?-By such infernal artifice, Napoleon already reckoned among his treasures the massive gold of Spain and of her Indies; as if it were as easy to vanquish a people, as to seduce kings and to corrupt courtiers. But he is deceived, and most effectually is he cheated by

Proclamation, dated Oviedo, July those who are conversant in the arts

the 17th.

SPANIARDS!The tyrant of France temporised with you, to increase the number of his slaves. His ambition, his absurd confidence, increased by the intrigues of a vizier, and by those of a weak and perfidious court, led to the project of the arrest of our august mo. narch, that he might obtain possession of these dominions; and what tricks and abominations were not employed to deceive our young prince, and to force him into ignominious slavery! When he sought to promote the prosperity of his people, and the happiness of his beloved vassals, he met with opprobrium, sacrilegions treachery, the ruin of his subjects, a criminal compact written in characters of blood by parricides and traitors, a thousand enormities of which Ne. ro was incapable, all which were deliberately concerted with a haugh ty Vandal, who meditated our de

of deception. He has forgotten that we are both freemen and Spaniards, since the 19th of March, a day of as much exaltation to Spain, as it was of terror and alarm to the black eagles which presumed to fix their talons on the gates of our capital. Happy day which you have converted to the desolation of your enemies! Look, oh Spain! down the horrible preci-" pice that perfidy has excavated, and remember the exalted happiness, and the immortal renown your enemies have prepared for you.-Yes, Spain, with the energies of liberty, has to contend with France debili tated by slavery. If she remain firm and constant, Spain will triumph. A whole people is more powerful thau disciplined armies. Those who unite to maintain the independence of their country, must triumph over tyranny. Spain will inevitably conquer in a cause the most just that has ever raised the


deadly weapon of war; for she fights not for the concerns of a day, but for the serenity and happiness of ages; not for an insulated privilege, but for all the rights of human nature; not for temporal blessings, but for eternal happiness; not for the benefit of one nation, but for all mankind, and even for France herself, Spaniards, elevate your natural courage by such sentiments! Let every tyrant of the earth perish, rather than that you should submit to despotism and to impiety. To impiety! Merciful God, let not your faithful people be exposed to such disgrace and infamy!-Spaniards! Let every honest man arise in defence of his country; let your iron and brass be converted into thunderbolts of war: let all Spain become a camp: let her population become an armed host; above all, let our youths fly to the defence of the state, for the son should fail before the father ap. pear in the ranks of battle; and you, tender mothers, affectionate wives, fair maidens, do not retain within your embraces, the sweet objects of your love, until from victory returned, they deserve your affection. They withdraw from your arms not to fight for a tyrant, but for their God, for a monarch worthy the veneration of his people; and not only for these, but for yourselves and for your com. panions. Instead of regretting their departure, like the Spartan women, sing the song of jubilee; and when they return conquerors to your arms, then, and not till then, weave the laurel crown for their reception. The love of religion, of independence, and of glory, those noble passions, the preservers of great empires, pe

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netrate into our inmost souls. Let us all swear, by the outrages suffered by our country, by the victims sacrificed on the 2d of May, by our own swords, bathed in the parricidal blood of the ferocious Napoleon, that we will inflict the punishment decreed by the God of vengeance. And you, rich men, rendered selfish, not patriotic, by indulgence, do not continue in ignoble repose, but exert your means, that peace may be secured. If, de- bilitated by inactivity, you are incapable of enduring the fatigues of war, let your treasures supply the wants of the indigent, and the necessities of the defender of the country. And you, ye venerable orders of religion, do not ye with hold the sums necessary for the support of the common cause!-Which is most precious, the gold of the mine, or the blood of man? If your civic virtue should not command the sacrifice, your mercenary interest will extort it. Your in. corporation, sanctified by autho rity, your political existence, the possession of your property, your individual security, all depend upon the success of this war. Our independence cannot be resigned until these illustrious seminaries of sanc tity and wisdom are surrendered— until these solid columns of religion and of the state tumble to the earth-until the public right shall be annihilated and Spain itself subverted. Happy country! this day you receive from your favou rite sons the most acceptable proofs of their tenderness and love, of their affection and gratitude, for the protection they have received from you through successive ages. To-day they return to you the riches they have received, for the splendour

splendour you have conferred, for your pious generosity, for your ar dent zeal, in sustaining the religion and the customs of their ancestors, -those customs originating in the sublime morality of the Gospel, within whose sacred vase is inclosed, and will be for ever in. closed, the preservation of your empire and the power of your mo. narchy. Spaniards! we all defend one common cause. We are all passengers on-board the ship Inde pendence, which is already launched, and must either swim or sink, aecording as she is navigated by us. There is only one mean of salvation for us, and that is, that the whole nation, armed, hasten to exterminate the banditti by whom we are invaded, and to punish them for their atrocities. Warriors! present yourselves in the field of glory. I do not attempt to excite your valeur; you are Spaniards, and therefore you are brave and honourable; but, in one respect, I may give you advice, although you are Spaniards. I recommend to you, in the name of your country, the most severe discipline, and the most implicit obedience to your commanders. Without discipline, you can neither have an army nor victory. Without discipline, valour is useless, and numbers impotent. Do you see how these fierce pretenders outrage, lay waste, and destroy; nothing can satiate their ferocity ? But if, in your turn, you should become conquerors, let the martial spirit by which you are animated, be restrained within the limits of reason and justice. Let humanity, compassion, and beneficence, be the device of your banners: above all, let not the name of Spaniard be stained by that ini

quity and sacrilege which you de test in your enemies; and then your grateful country will confer upon you her abundant benefits, and your names will be engraved on the sublime edifice of Spanish independence. I may address you as conquerors, although you have not already vanquished. One province only, the cradle of heroes, the moment war was declared, filled the enemy with terror. Yes, Spani ards, from that happy instant the lion was attacked with fever, from which he will never escape.

The victory you are about to accomplish will establish an alliance between Spain and the most pow. erful, the most wise, and the most polished nation of the earth-with the only country which this second Machiavel could not seduce-Great Britain! The alliance that the infamous traitor broke for our misery and ruin; that assassin of our nation, that devouring monster, whose immense rapine provided an asylum for our enemy; that alliance, countrymen, has been generously restored by the only empire which has been able to maintain its honour and independence, and to which is reserved the lofty distinc. tion of restoring enslaved Europe. Of what consequence then is the renowned power of Napoleon ? The world itself depends upon the union of those two great nations. F. P. G. D. C.

Address to the Andalusians, after the Surrender of the French Army in the Defiles of the Sierra Mo


BRAVE ANDALUSIANS! The spark of patriotism which was kindled in your breasts, has in a few days been fanned to a flame which has consumed

consumed the oppressors of your country.

You wished to be free, and in an instant you possessed a tutelary government, and an army eager for conflict and triumph.

Those legions of Vandals, who for a moment seized by surprize some of your cities, and delivered them over to pillage-who, intoxicated with victorics gained over divided nations, marched, loaded with the spoils of Europe, to scat. ter over the fair fields of Betis the flame of desolation, have experienced the force of loyalty, and the love of country and religion.

Brave Andalusians! Yours is the glory of Marengo, of Austerlitz, and of Jena. The laurels which encircled the brows of those conquerors, lie at your feet,


Immortal glory to the hero who has renewed in the Sierra Morena the achievements of Fabius MaxiOur sons will say, Castanos triumphed over the French, and his glory did not fill with mourning the houses of our fathers! The unfa ding laurel of victory to the brave combatants who have laid prostrate the oppressors of humanity! Hymns of benediction to the wise govern. ment which has defended your rights, and prepared the way for new triumphs!

I invoke you, not as Andalu sians, but as Spaniards. Fly, sons of Betis! Fly to unite yourselves with your brethren of the Ebro, the Duero, and the Xucar; fly to break the chains of those who lie captive on the Tagus, the Manzanares, and the Llobregat.

Go and purify the soil of Spain from the footsteps of those traitors. Go and avenge in their blood the insults they offered you under the

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Passages selected from the Ma. nifesto of the Spanish Nation to Europe.

Seville, January 1, 1809. "NATIONS and communities of Europe, princes, good men of all classes and in all conditions, the Spanish people, and in their name the directing junta, to whom on account of the unjust and iniqui tous imprisonment of their king, authority is confided, undertake to lay before you a history of the misfortunes and grievances they have endured, and, in presenting to you a faithful picture of their situation, a candid exposure of their designs, they assure them. selves of your compassion for their calamities, and of your solicitude for their fate.

"All the world has witnessed the constant adherence of Spain to the cause of France, and the unin terrupted

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