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appointment made in France? By a king pious indeed, and worthy of all respect, but not only under an ascendant influence, but under constraint and coercion? Was it not a strange and unnatural chimera to name for the lord lieutenant of his kingdom, a general who commanded an army that menaced and compelled him immediately to resign his crown?" In conclusion, he said, "the nation saw itself without a king, and did not know what hand to turn. The renunciations of its kings, and the nomination of a governor of the kingdom, were deeds done in France, and under the Hose of an emperor who has persuaded himself that he can effect the felicity of Spain, by giving it a new dynasty, deriving its origin from a family so fortunate as to believe itself incapable of producing any other princes than such as shall possess equal or greater talents for government, than the invincible and victorious, the legislator, and the philosopher, the great emperor Napoleon. He requested, with all due respect, that what be considered as well grounded fears, might be brought under the consideration of the supreme junta of government, and even laid before the great Napoleon, to be weighed by the natural rectitude of his disposition and purity of his heart, free from ambition, and far removed from all guile and political artifice. And, the bishop hoped, that the emperor, after matters should be thus candidly con

sidered, would admit that the safety of Spain could not consist in slavery, and that he would not think of effecting her cure by putting her in chains, seeing she was neither in a state of lunacy, nor furiously mad +. These were sentiments which he was not afraid to avow to the junta of government, and even to the emperor himself. This expression of them was demanded by his love for his country, and the royal family, and by his character of counsellor to his sovereign in the quality of a bishop of Spain: nor did he consider the sentiments he had expressed as useless, if not necessary to the true glory and feli city of the illustrious hero who was the admiration of all Europe, and to whom he had the pleasure of taking the present opportunity to pay the tribute of his humble, obedient, and submissive respects."- -Orense, 29th May,

1808.

The bp. of St. Andero's letter on the same subject, and on the same occasion, though quite in another stile, was as much admired and as widely circulated. To Buonaparte, who had invited him by letter, to attend at Bayonne, the bishop replied, "I cannot make it convenient to attend, and if I could, I would not ‡." The junta at Bayonne held their twelfth meeting on the 7th of July, the day appointed for the acceptance of the new constitution. In the chamber where they sat, were erected a magnificent throne, and a richly decorated altar, the service of [M4] which

So we would say in English. The Spanish is, " A la vista, under the tye."

+ Por que no esta loca ni furiosa.

See Chronicle, p. 71.

which was performed by the archbishop of Burgos. Joseph Buonoparte, to whom Napoleon had transferred the crown of Spain, being seated on the throne, delivered a speech to the "gentlemen deputies," in which he told them, that he was desirous of presenting himself in the midst of them, previously to their separation from each other." Assembled," said Joseph," in consequence of one of the extraordinary events to which all nations in their turn, and at particular junctures, are subject; and in pursuance of the disposi tions of the emperor Napoleon, our illustrious brother.-Your sentiments have been those of HIS age. The result of these sentiments will be consolidated in the constitutional act which will be forthwith read to you. It will preserve Spain from many tedious broils, which were easily to be foreseen from the disquietude with which the nation had been long agitated." He proceeded to touch on the great standing topic, the intrigues of the enemies of the continent, who hoped to sever Spain from her colonies; but if the Spaniards were disposed to make the same sacrifices with him, then should Spain be speedily tranquil and happy at home, and just and powerful abroad."-The act of constitution was read over in a loud voice, and the members of the junta, on the question being put, unanimously declared their acceptance of it.

The president of the junta, delivered a short address in answer to the speech of king Joseph;

after which the several members took the following oath :-" [ swear obedience to the king, the constitution, and the laws." The junta then attended his majesty's levee, to pay him their respects on the occasion. And his majesty, we are told, "gave them the most gracious reception, and conversed with them nearly an hour." The viceroy of Spain, Murat, was present at the inauguration of king Joseph. He was called by Buonaparte, and arrived at Bayonne on the 6th of July. It was deemed expedient by Buonaparte, before the departure of Joseph for the capital, to have some conversation with the lieutenant general, concerning the present state of Spain and disposition of the Spaniards. It was judged political wisdom that Joseph should attach a number of the Spanish nobility to his interests, by appointing them to offices of dignity (as was conceived) trust, and emolument. On the 1st of July, there was a nomination of eight ministers, viz. Don Louis Mariano de Urquijo, secretary of state, Don Pedro Cevallos, minister for foreign relations; Don Joseph de Aranza, minister for the Indies; Admiral Don Joseph Massaredo, minister of marine; Don Gonzalo O'Farrel, minister of War; Don Gaspar Melohior de Jovellanos, minister of the interior; the count Cabarrus, minister of finances; and Don Sebastion Pinuela, minister of Justice. Two captains of the bodyguards, viz. the duke of Park, a grandee of Spain, and the duke of St. Germain, also a grandee of

* See State Papers, p. 326.

Spain.

Spain. Two colonels of the guards, viz. the duke of Infantado, colonel of the regiment of Spanish guards, and the prince of Castel-Franco, colonel of the Walloon-guards, grand officers of the crown. The marquis of Ariza, great chamberlain; the duke of Hijar, grand master of the ceremonies; and count Fernando Nunez, grand huntsman. Chamberlains; the count Santa Collonna, the duke of Ossuna, count Castel Florida, and the duke of Sotomayor, all grandees of Spain.

It is painful to observe in this list of officers of the household, court, and public service of Joseph, the names of persons of the first rank in the country, and even of some who had laboured long to overthrow the prince of the peace, and place the prince of Asturias on the throne of his father. True, being in the power of Buonaparte, they were under a necessity of accepting the places appointed for them; nor had they any other means of escaping from the hands of the tyrant; and being serviceable to the cause of their country, on any opportunity that might be offered. But who forced them to go to Bayonne? This question recurs, notwithstanding every effort to excuse them.

Immediately after the abdications, the royal family of Spain was hurried into the interior of France. When they had procceded as far as Bourdeaux, May 12, the prince of Asturias, and the infants Don Antonio and Don Carlos, subscribed a long proclamation addressed to the Spaniards, in which they are made to repeat their former renunciations of all their rights of succession to The Spanish crown, and to detail

the most prominent circumstances in the state of the nation, as well as their own situation under which they had come to that resolution. The unhappy princes are made in that claborate address to their countrymen, to state in the strongest colours the calamities to be apprehended from the enmity, but the mighty advantages to be expected from the friendship of France, and even, what was a cruel mockery and insult to the princes-to hold forth their dereliction as the greatest possible proof of their affection for the Spanish nation.

Their highnesses conceived that they afforded the most undoubted proof of their generosity and affection towards this nation, by sacrificing to the utmost extent of their power, their individual and personal interests for its benefit, and by that present instrument to assent, as they had already assentett by a particular treaty, to the renunciation of all their rights to the throne. They accordingly released the Spaniards from all their duties relating thereto, and exhorted them to consult the common interests of their country by conducting themselves in a peaceable manner, and' by looking for their happiness in the power and wise arrangements of the emperor Napoleon. The Spaniards might be assured that by their zeal in conforming their couduct to those arrangements, they would give their prince and the two infants the strongest proof of their loyalty; in like manner as their royal highnesses had given them the greatest instance of their paternal affection, in renouncing all their rights, and sacrificing their own interests, for the happiness of

the

the Spaniards, the sole object of their wishes."

The king and queen of Spain, arrived on the 20th of May, at Fontainebleau, where he was immediately accommodated with a complete equipage for the chase. From thence they removed on the 22d, to Compiegne. The prince of the peace resided now and then, when be did not attend the king and queen, in a villa in the environs of Paris. The queen of Etruria, and her son, were placed under proper care at a house in the village of St. Mendez, near Paris. The unfortunate Ferdinand, with his uncle and brother, arrived May 19th at Vallency, a small town in the province of Berry, where they were lodged in a castle belonging to Talleyrand. The princes sought consolation in a strict observance of the ordinances of the catholic religion. They attended mass twice every day, and enjoyed for hours together, the soothing strains of sacred music. The incomes promised by treaty to the royal family of Spain, have not been more regularly paid than pensions commonly are to princes in confinement or exile: which has already reduced the princes to great incon

venience.

*

under marshal Bessieres, properly posted for that purpose. Napoleon accompanied him as far as Trun, twelve miles distant from the frontier. In all the towns and villages through which Joseph passed in his way to the capital, a sullen silence prevailed. Few of the men went out of their houses, or interrupted their ordinary employments; and some of the women appeared at the windows and balconies, crying out viva Ferdinando VII. On the 20th of July, king Joseph made his public entry into Madrid.-On the same day Buonaparte, with Josephina, set out from Bayonne, and arrived at St. Cloud, on the 16th of August.

Buonaparte had hitherto, in all his interferences and aggressions on independent states and kingdoms, given, in declarations of war, his reasons for his conduct; which, though they did not justify, explained his views, and were a kind of homage to the sentiments of men and nations. While Europe was divided among a number of separate and independent powers, while there was a community of states, and a degree of public spirit, as well as public opinion in Europe; some degree of decent respect for these appeared to be, if not altogether demanded, yet decent and proper. After the peace of Tilsit, when the whole continent of Europe, Spain itself not excepted, lay crouching at his feet, he does not seem at first to have thought any such management at all necessary. He scorned to put on even the mask of morality.-His conduct to the Spa

King Joseph set foot on the territory of Spain on the 9th of July, escorted by a guard of 4000 Italian troops, and followed by upwards of an hundred coaches, carrying his suite, and the members of the Bayonne junta. This guard, gradually increased, amounted, by the time Joseph arrived at Madrid, to tennish nation, to whom he professed thousand; but his true guard was the greatest friendship, was base an army of eighteen thousand men, and treacherous beyond all examMay 1, 1810.

ple

ple in the history of mankind, whe- a benefit to the two countries than a century of peace after three centuries of war. The bond that united the two nations was broken asunder by the French revolution. After the third coalition, Spain, at the same time that she was most profuse in her protestations of friendship to France, gave secret assurances of aid to the confederates, as appeared from certain papers communicated to the parliament of England.

ther in a savage, barbarous, civilized, or refined state. Yet he made no apology to Europe: but afterwards, when-he found he was opposed both by the pen and the sword with a keenness he little expected, he published a kind of justification of his conduct towards Spain, which is the most curious piece of what may be called political morality, or the morality of ambition, that had ever before been presented to the world. This jusfification appeared in the form of a report from the ministers of external relations and of war, presented to the conservative senate on the 5th of September, and published in the Moniteur, September 7th. It is dated at Bayonne, April 24th, 1808.-The substance of it is, "that France was under an obligation to put an end to the in ternal dissentions and anarchy that prevailed in Spain, in order to compel the English government to spare the effusion of inuman blood. This was for the interest and happiness of Spain, France, the continent of Europe, and all the world. Of all the states of Europe there was not one between whose condition and fate, and that of France, there was so close and necessary connection as that of Spain. Spain must be either a useful friend to France or a dangerous enemy.

In the present state of things Spain, under so miserable a government, was of no service to the common cause against England. Her marine was neglected; her magazines unprovided; in every branch of the administration there reigned the most horrible disorders; all the resources of the monarchy were dilapidated; yet while Spain neglected her marine she was augmenting her force at land. These great evils were not to be remedied but by great changes.-The maritime resources of Spain were lost to herself and to France. The country that might command the greatest resources of this kind was that which in reality had the least. They must be restored by good government, and improved by judicious arrange ments, that they might be directed by his imperial majesty, for the attainment of that peace which humanity so loudly called for, and of The greatness of Lewis XIV. which Europe had so great need. did not begin till, having conquered Every thing that had a tendency to Spain, he formed an alliance with this end was allowable and right. the family then reigning there, by It was not permitted to his majesty which means the Spanish crown by the interests of either France came to be placed on the head of or Europe, to neglect the only his grandson. This provident act, means of waging a successful war of policy was productive of no less with England. It was demanded

Though probably not composed till sometime afterwards.

by

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